Eggnog Latte for the Holidays

Winter has come early and the holidays are upon us. Buy Organic Coffee would like to vote for eggnog latte for the holidays as an appropriate way to make healthy organic coffee for Thanksgiving, Christmas and into the depths of winter. Here is a little information about eggnog, latte and how to make eggnog latte for the holidays.

Where Did Eggnog Come From?

Eggnog probably originated in East Anglia, England and has its roots in a medieval European beverage made with hot milk called posset. Nog comes from noggin which was Middle English for a small carved wood cup used to serve alcohol. At the time of its origin the drink was also called egg flip because the preparer flipped or rapidly poured it between two pitchers to mix it. An early reference to egg nog in the colonies in the 18th century is by Isaac Weld who wrote that

“The American travelers, before they pursued their journey, took a hearty draught each, according to custom, of egg-nog, a mixture composed of new milk, eggs, rum, and sugar, beat up together”

Making the Eggnog

Ingredients:

  • A dozen egg yolks
  • 1 cup of sugar
  • 4 cups of milk
  • 1 cup of chilled heavy cream
  • Nutmeg, grated
  • ½ cup of bourbon, rum, or brandy
  • Preferably all organic

Preparation:

  • Use a medium saucepan.
  • Whisk the milk and sugar over medium heat until sugar is dissolved.
  • This takes a minute or two.
  • Use a large bowl to whisk the egg yolks.
  • Continue to whisk and pour the hot mixture into the yolks, slowly.
  • Put the mixture back into the cooking pan.
  • Cook over medium to low heat just below the temperature needed to simmer until the mixture is thick enough to coat the back of a stirring spoon.
  • This takes twenty to twenty-five minutes.
  • Pour through a strainer into a bowl.
  • Stir in the bourbon, rum or brandy and then the cream.
  • Garnish with grated nutmeg.
  • Cover with a plastic wrap and put in the refrigerator to cool.
Eggnog

Eggnog

Latte

Latte is a coffee house coffee made with espresso and milk.

Latte is made with steamed milk. For latte think “coffee with milk” or café au lait.

Eggnog latte

You have two choices here, hot or cold.

You can make espresso and cool it and mix into a cup made from the recipe for eggnog. Or you can start with the eggnog mix that is just mixed and warm and add your espresso for a hot eggnog latte. In each case you have a nice holiday drink with a little alcohol.

Alternatives, by the way, are Irish coffee and Rüdesheimer kaffee if you want an alcohol and coffee drink to warm you up on a cold winter’s day. But, if you want to be consistent with the season try making eggnog latte for the holidays and use one of the Colombian organic coffee brands to make the espresso.

Rüdesheimer Kaffee

A nice drink on a cold day is Rüdesheimer kaffee.  Rüdesheimer kaffee comes from Rüdesheim, Germany. In 1957 Hans Karl Adam made coffee with sugar and brandy and topped it off with whipped cream. Hans Karl Adam was a German television chef and very popular at the time. He dreamed up this drink and it became a hit in local coffee houses. If you are looking for an alternative to Irish coffee or if you have simply run out of Irish whisky, try making Rüdesheimer kaffee.

How Do You Make Rüdesheimer Kaffee?

We suggest that you start with healthy organic coffee, preferably one of the Colombian organic coffee brands. Any coffee cup will do but the best results are obtained with the special cup used in Germany for this drink. Go here to Weinquelle if you want a complete set.

Article:            Asbach Rüdesheimer Coffee set + 2 cups and spoons.
Country:         Germany
Region:          Rüdesheim, Rhein
Producer:       Asbach
Alcohol:         38% ABV
Flavour:         Floral notes, honey, grapes and slight wood note.
Taste: Harmoniously, moderate sweetness, winy with notes after plums, easily nutty.

Rüdesheimer Kaffee Cup

Rüdesheimer Kaffee Cup

Any brandy may work for making Rüdesheimer Kaffee, but to be totally correct use Asbach brandy. If you are having trouble finding this brand go online at The Whisky Exchange.

Asbach is a famous German brandy with an ardent cult following, particularly amongst British ex-servicemen, many of whom have developed a fondness for it while stationed in the country. This 3 year old is the sibling to Asbach Uralt.

Asbach Brandy

Asbach Brandy

Tell them that Buy Organic Coffee sent you.

Organic sugar and chocolate are next. Visit our organic ingredients page for help on this one.

Steps:

  • Grind the beans immediately before making the coffee. Make the coffee first but have the rest of the ingredients on hand because Rüdesheimer Kaffee is put together at the table.
  • While the water is heating for your coffee make the whipped cream. Adding a dash of vanilla sugar is nice touch.
  • Add a jigger of Asbach Uralt brandy and sugar cubes to a coffee up.
  • Flambé and stir for just a minute to dissolve the sugar.
  • Add the coffee, preferably espresso.
  • Spread whipped cream across the op and garnish with flakes of chocolate.
  • Serve and enjoy.

Enjoy this drink with a tasty dessert such as coffee cake.

Café Bombón

Café Bombón originated in Valencia, Spain and spread throughout Spain, Europe, Asia and the Americas. As the popularity of café Bombón spread variations in how to make it also occurred. When made in Malaysia as Kopi Susu Panas or in Thailand as Gafeh Rorn it is commonly made with ground coffee and sweetened condensed milk whereas traditional Café Bombón is made one to one with espresso and sweetened condensed milk. The drink is served in a glass instead of a cup and the milk is poured slowly to layer out beneath the espresso for visual effect.

Espresso and All Organic

First of all use healthy organic coffee and organic milk. (See our article about finding organic ingredients. This is essentially a coffee house coffee as its base is espresso. Espresso is very concentrated coffee that retains a lot of dissolved as well as suspended solids from the roasted coffee bean. It is made by forcing steam (boiling water) through fine ground coffee. It has a thicker feel because of the suspended solids and foam because of the pressurized steam. Espresso concentrates the flavors of coffee and is served in a small cup, usually an ounce (30 cc). A cup of espresso typically has between 40 and 75 milligrams of caffeine while a standard cup of percolated coffee contains about twice this much but in an 8 ounce cup. Thus coffee house coffee espresso is about four times more concentrated than the cup of coffee that you had a home for breakfast. Because espresso contains more coffee per ounce also contains more organic coffee antioxidants if you insist on organic for your espresso.

How to Make Café Bombón

First of all make your espresso, sufficient for each person whom you will serve. Pour into a glass instead of the traditional demitasse cup used for espresso. Use sweetened condensed milk in equal quantity to the espresso. Pour slowly into the espresso to create a base layer of milk before serving. Your guests may wish to add milk and or nutmeg and stir but that is their business.

The Age of Exploration and Spanish Coffees

The Portuguese and Spanish sailed the world in the age of exploration staring in the middle of the 15th century and continuing for nearly three hundred years until Spanish colonies gained their freedom. All variety of items came on ship to Spain including coffees of the world. Turkish immigrants were especially important in bringing coffee to Spain. Here is a short list of varieties of Spanish coffee:

Café Solo – small glass of strong black coffee

Café Con Leche – same as coffee house coffee café con leche

Café Bombon – read the article

Café Americano – watered down café solo

Café Cortado – strong black coffee with a drop of milk.

Café Con Hielo – iced coffee

Café Sombra or Café Manchado – coffee flavored milk

Café Carajillo – similar to Irish coffee but with rum instead of Irish whisky

How Do You Make Black Tie Coffee?

An exotic coffee drink is the black tie. This is a traditional drink of Thailand. A black tie contains black tea and espresso as well as a mix of spicy and sweet ingredients. Basically black tie coffee starts with traditional Thai tea and ends up with a double shot of espresso. Just how do you make black tie coffee?

Black Tie Ingredients

  • Black tea mix = 1 cup or 4 bags of black tea
  • Orange blossom water
  • Star anise
  • Crushed tamarind seed
  • Sugar ¾ cup
  • Condensed milk or cream
  • Healthy organic coffee

You can gather all of the ingredients for the Thai tea base or you can purchase Thai tea mix with tea and all of the ingredients added. An alternative is to simply use black tea but then you miss out on a lot of the taste of this exotic drink.

Black Tie Steps

Make the tea first and cool it.

  • Boil four cups of water and add tea and stir in sugar, boil for three minutes
  • Let the tea steep for half an hour
  • If using a Thai tea mix strain out the leaves
  • Or remove tea bags
  • Allow to cool and then put in refrigerator
Thai Tea

Thai Tea

Make expresso, a double shot for each glass of Black Tie

Pour tea into glasses with ice and add your double shot of expresso

Top off with cream or condensed milk, pouring slowing to create a creamy layer on top of the drink and serve.

History of Thai Tea and the Black Tie

Folks in Thailand used to buy their tea from Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) until it become too expensive. So they started using a semi wild tea that grows in mountainous regions of Thailand known as Bai Miang. They added orange blossom water, star anise, crushed tamarind seed and whatever other spices came to mind. They sweetened this beverage with sugar, coconut milk, whole milk or evaporated milk. This drink spread with Thai restaurants across Asia and to Europe and North America. There is little information about how people started adding espresso to this drink but a good bet is that this variation was created in a coffee house as a way to sell more espresso.

Black Tie Organic

If you want to go totally organic with this drink check our article about finding organic ingredients.

Variations on a Black Tie

This drink invites experimentation. Thai tea, which is the base of the drink, is made using a variety of spices and sweeteners in Thailand. The same applies to making it in your home. It is certainly a great drink for a hot day so make sure to prepare the tea early and cool in the frig and add a little ice before adding your espresso. Then sip and enjoy!

How Do You Make Café Medici?

Café Medici brings to mind the wealthy banking Italian family from Florence that produced four Popes for the Catholic Church. Café Medici brings to mind the Renaissance as well as high level intrigue relating to this famous family. Surprisingly Café Medici did not originate in Florence or Italy for that matter. Café Medici was a creation of a well-known coffee house in Seattle. The Last Exit on Brooklyn was founded in 1967 and was part of the early coffee culture of Seattle. Basically Café Medici is a type of coffee house coffee. The drink is sufficiently popular that they will know how to make it in coffee houses across the country.

How Do You Make Café Medici?

The ingredients for a Café Medici are a double shot of expresso, also called a doppio (which is Italian), chocolate syrup, orange peel and whipped cream.

Use an espresso cup. Put orange peel and chocolate syrup in the bottom. Extract the espresso directly into the cup. Top with whipped cream and serve.

Our preference is to use healthy organic coffee for this brew. Where to find organic ingredients may be an issue for you. If so check the link.

A Great Name None-the-less

So, Café Medici has little or nothing to do with the House of Medici. But it is an interesting and compelling name for coffee. The Medici gave the Catholic Church these popes:

  • Pope Leo X (1513–1521)
  • Pope Clement VII (1523–1534)
  • Pope Pius IV (1559–1565)
  • Pope Leo XI (1605)

They also provided two queens of France, Catherine de’ Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de’ Medici (1600–1610). They were the Dukes of Florence and ruled Tuscany. They were wealthy bankers and for a time the wealthiest family in Europe. They were in the textile trade. It is not recorded that they were coffee drinkers although they lived during the time when Turkish coffee became popular around the Caribbean.

Why Organic Coffee, Milk and Orange Peel?

The point of going organic is to avoid impurities in your food and to help the environment as well. But what is the point of drinking organic coffee if you do not adopt an organic approach to the rest of what you eat and drink? Like organic coffee, other organic foods are certified by the United States Department of Agriculture, the USDA. If you are in doubt about where to find organic ingredients follow the links on this page. If you are in doubt about what constitutes an organic food or drink read the excerpt from the USDA web site. Check the organic ingredients article for a few sources of organic ingredients if you cannot find what you want at your local market. We will be adding to this list as we find out more about where to find organic ingredients for foods to go with the organic coffee antioxidants that make organic coffee so healthy.

How Do You Make Touba Coffee?

There seem to be as many ways to make coffee as there are places in the world. A unique way to make coffee comes from the country of Senegal. Touba coffee is made from eighty percent coffee and twenty percent selim. Selim is also known Guinea pepper. Other spices may also be added such as cloves. Touba coffee is served at ceremonies during the Magal of Touba, the commemoration of the leader of the Islamic Mouride brotherhood from exile in 1902. However, Touba coffee is consumed every day by ordinary people in Senegal and has become popular across other parts of Africa and other parts of the world. Interestingly, Nescafe had to introduce a new product, Nescafe Ginger and Spice to compete with Touba coffee in Senegal and adjacent countries.

Touba Coffee Ingedients

Our preference is to start with healthy organic coffee. And you need to find Selim seeds, the unique ingredient in Touba coffee. Another name for Selim is Negro pepper and it can be purchased from outlets for African foods.

Here are a couple of links that may be useful:

Shikenan African Shop offers a variety of unique foods including Uda / Negro pepper / Selim seeds.

Uda is a pungent and aromatic spice that yields the scientific named Xylopia aethiopica but it is commonly known in the plain language as Negro pepper. Came originally from Ethiopia to Ghana, Uda is also called grains of selim, African grains of selim, moor pepper and Senegal pepper. Beyond it diverse labels, Uda is popular for its bitter-nutty taste just like a mixture of cubeb pepper and nutmeg. One example of African food recipe that uses Uda is the Nigerian Pepper Soup.

As you will find out on their web site Selim is used for more purposes than to spice up coffee.

If you come from down under you may want to check out Herbie’s Spices. Here is what they say about Selim pepper pods.

Selim Pepper

Botanical Name: Xylopia aethiopica

Other Common Names: African pepper, Ethiopian pepper, Grains of Selim, Guinea pepper, kimba pepper, negro pepper and Senegal pepper

Description & Use: Selim pepper goes by the names; African pepper, Ethiopian pepper, Grains of Selim, Guinea pepper, kimba pepper, negro pepper and Senegal pepper. This little pod, about the same size as a long pepper, comes to us from Western Africa and this pepper is generally used in the same way as black pepper, Sichuan pepper or grains of paradise. Like Sichuan pepper, most of the camphor-like, numbing, medicinal flavor is in the pod itself and the seeds actually have very little flavor by comparison. For this reason the whole or ground pod is most commonly added to cooking to get the most out of the taste. Although Selim pepper tastes quite medicinal on its own, when combined with rich, gamey or very fatty ingredients, it has the effect of cutting the rich, cloying flavors of these foods.

Likewise Herbies will tell you about many other uses of Selim besides for making Touba coffee.

How to Make Touba Coffee

The authentic way to make Touba coffee is to combine four parts green coffee bean and 1 part Selim seeds. Roast and grind. Add water and boil. Then pour through a filter and serve. An alternative approach if you already have whole bean roasted organic coffee on hand is to grind the beans, add coffee to water and boil. For the last few minutes add Selim seeds. With both methods you may find that you sneeze from the strong peppery aroma of the Selim.

How Do You Make Turkish Coffee?

There are many ways to make and enjoy coffee and especially healthy organic coffee. One of these is Turkish coffee. What is and how to you make Turkish coffee? Turkish coffee is an entirely different way to make coffee from how it is done in coffee houses in North America and is, basically, how folks make coffee in Turkey. Read on to learn how to make Turkish coffee.

Turkish Coffee

Turkish coffee is a method of preparing coffee common not only in the country of Turkey but across the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, Balkans and into Eastern Europe.

Making Turkish Coffee

Ibrik for Turkish Coffee

Ibrik for Turkish Coffee

Here is the short and sweet approach to making Turkish coffee.

  • When making coffee Turkish style grind the coffee beans even finer than you would for making espresso.
  • Make Turkish coffee in a small pot with a cup of water
  • A small sauce pan will do although Turks use an ibrik (see image)
  • Add sugar
    • Plain: no sugar
    • Little sugar: add half a level teaspoon to the coffee
    • Medium: add a level teaspoon to the coffee
    • A lot of sugar: add two level teaspoons to the coffee
  • Bring the water with sugar to a boil and remove from heat
  • Add coffee and stir until coffee sinks
    • Some add a pod of cardamom as well (optional)
  • Heat again slowly until coffee boils and foam appears on the top
    • So not stir as this disturbs the foam
    • Do not boil too long as prolonged boiling gives the coffee a burnt taste
    • Remove from heat briefly and then heat again
    • Repeat one more time
  • Pour coffee directly from the ibrik or your sauce pan into demitasse cups similar to what you would use for espresso
  • Ideal Turkish coffee has a lot of thick foam (think of Cuban coffee) and the person who gets the cup with the most foam has the best coffee.

History of Turkish Coffee

Coffee was discovered and used as a drink in the middle of the 14th century. It was drunk in Ethiopia and then on the Arabian Peninsula. In the 16th century the Ottoman Empire ruled Turkey and much of the Middle East including the Arabian Peninsula. The governor of Yemen brought coffee with him on his return to Istanbul. The Turkish coffee method originated in the Ottoman Palace. Beans were roasted over a fire, finely ground and cooked slowly in water on the ashes of the fire. This method of making coffee spread along with the popularity of coffee across all of the Ottoman Empire. As the size and influence of the Ottoman Empire waned aspects of its culture remained including the making of Turkish coffee. How to make Turkish coffee varies across the length and breadth of the old empire but the recipe above is pretty close to how coffee is made and enjoyed from Morocco to Iraq and Yemen to Bucharest.

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

Wholesale Organic Coffee

There are many small coffee plantations that grow and process excellent organic coffee. But the vast majority of these growers are dependent on exporters to get their product to an international market. If you want great coffee you want healthy organic coffee. And if you want coffee in bulk you need wholesale organic coffee from places like the coffee growing axis of Colombia. Grow good certified organic coffee is a job all by itself. Exporting coffee requires an entirely different skill set which is why if you want wholesale organic coffee you need to deal with a handful of coffee exporters in the country where you are dealing.

Why Do We Pick Colombia?

Colombia is a major producer of high quality Arabica coffee. Many consider Colombian coffee brands to be among the best in the world. The problem with getting coffee out of Colombia is that shipments need to be checked and vetted so that the exporter is not hiding drugs in the shipment. Colombia is in the final stages of negotiating the end to a six decade long civil war. Rebel have financed their operations in part by selling cocaine. What began as a fight for the rights of small farmers has largely turned into paramilitary groups of drug lords and mini drug lords and kidnappers hiding out in the jungle with little chance of reintegrating into society. The government has gotten the rebellion out of the cities but the surviving drug lords in the jungle still try to ship their product out of the country by various means. But, despite the need for a professional export service and the work involved therein we think that Colombian coffee is worth the effort. Colombian organic coffee is especially worth the effort!

 

Green Beans or Roasted

Roasters in the USA and Europe will want green coffee beans. Retailers may simply prefer to buy coffee roasted close to the source and sent via air freight to their city. Green beans are shipped by sea, usually in shipping container lots. Because roasted whole coffee beans have a six month shelf life it works to send via air freight. Usually it takes 4 to 6 weeks from placing an order for freshly roasted and packed organic Colombian coffee to arrive at your door. With green beans the time frame is similar but you need to add time for shipping which can be up to three weeks for Europe or Japan versus a week or less for the Southern USA.

USDA Certification

When you buy coffee at a store you will look for USDA certification on the bag. What do you do when you buy shipping containers of wholesale organic coffee? The exporter must provide, from growers, organic supplier certificates. These are typically provided by an entity such as Bio Latina which certifies on behalf of the USDA across much of Latin America. USDA certification guarantees that the product has been grown, processed, stored and shipped according to organic processes. If you are interested in wholesale organic coffee from Colombia please feel free to contact us today.

Why Do You Drink Coffee?

Why do you drink coffee? You might respond like the mountain climber intent on climbing a jagged peak, because it is there. You might also lecture for an hour or so about the health benefits of drinking coffee. But, why do you drink coffee? Is it the taste or aroma? Is it the morning wakeup effect or because you need a cup to make it through a long afternoon at work? Maybe it is a genetic predisposition as we wrote about in our article, Genetic Desire for Coffee. Here are a few more thoughts on the subject of why one might like to drink coffee.

Warm Up, Wake Up and Relax a Bit on a Cold Night

Irish coffee is a good reason to drink coffee. This version of the brew was invented on a cold Irish night. There was an Irish chef at the airbase where Shannon International Airport now sits. There was a flight from Ireland to New York that had to turn back because of bad weather. The chef greeted the returning travelers with a hot drink of coffee, whiskey, brown sugar, and whipped cream. It became a regular feature at the airport and when people asked what kind of coffee it was they were told that it was Irish coffee (as opposed to one of the Brazilian or Colombian organic coffee brands). An American traveler brought the recipe back to America and it caught on.

Irish Coffee

Irish Coffee

Here are the ingredients and steps:

  • Coffee mug (A glass mug is traditional.)
  • Tablespoon
  • 4 ounces of hot coffee freshly ground and brewed organic coffee
  • 1 ounce of organic, preferably Irish, whiskey
  • 2 teaspoonful of brown sugar
  • 1 ounce of organic double cream whipped just lightly
  • Have everything ready.
  • Warm your coffee mug.
  • Put the brown sugar into the glass and then add the hot organic coffee.
  • Stir until the sugar dissolves.
  • Add the whiskey and stir again.
  • Add the cream by pouring gently over the back side of the tablespoon so that the whipped cream sits on top of the coffee.
  • A little cinnamon and or nutmeg sprinkled on top of the whipped cream are an American addition to this treat and are optional.

A Little Sugar on Top

If you like your coffee as a reason to add sugar to what you drink, consider Cuban coffee. Cuban coffee is strong espresso with a foamy layer of sugar laced with espresso across the top. Make the espresso as you normally would. The put a forth of a cup of brown sugar in a glass mixing bowl and add a tablespoonful of hot espresso. Mix using a whisk until the mixture is foamy. Pour this over each cup of steaming hot espresso and enjoy your Cuban coffee, aka Café Cubano.

For Whatever Reason

Why do you drink coffee? If you sense that it a genetic predilection that makes you start brewing coffee every morning you can still enjoy you coffee black or prepared in any of the innovative ways that people have invented. So enjoy your coffee and remember that coffee does a lot of good things for you besides just waking you up in the morning.

Best Brewed Coffee

The best brewed coffee starts with the best coffee beans, properly stored and ground immediately prior to brewing. The best brewed coffee is free of the many impurities too often found in regular coffee. The best brewed coffee is healthy organic coffee, preferably one of the excellent Colombian organic coffee brands.

 

Best Brewed Coffee

Best Brewed Coffee

Old Time Family Gatherings or Coffee for the Two of You at Home

A tried and true means of making coffee for large family gatherings is to put coffee grounds, water, and maybe a cracked egg or two into a very large pot and boil. If you live in the coffee growing regions of Latin America you probably have a wire ring on a handle which holds a cotton bag in which you place ground coffee. Boil water; pour through the suspended ground coffee into a pot or right into the cup. Add sugar or milk to the cup and enjoy. Or you may have a French press or simply a drip coffee maker. Here are a few tips for the best brewed coffee at home.

  • Buy freshly roasted coffee beans, preferably organic, and store in a sealed jar in a cool place. Do not store in the refrigerator as you will get condensation on the beans each time you take them out.
  • Grind just enough beans for the coffee that you want. Grind finely for espresso, and less so for other brewing methods. If you find that your coffee seems too bitter grind less finely and if it seems weak grind more finely.
  • Use bottled or filtered water if you tap water has too much chlorine
  • Start with a tablespoonful or two of ground coffee for each six ounces of water and adjust to taste.
  • Aim for 200 degree Fahrenheit for brewing coffee. With a French press, for example, boil the water and wait a minute or so before adding coffee and water to the press.
  • For a drip system, figure on five minutes and for a French press just two minutes of contact between coffee grounds and water. Espresso takes thirty seconds or less.
  • Anyone who wants to try the Eje Cafetero cloth bag approach should grind the coffee very fine. Put the grounds in the bag and set over your coffee pot.
  • At sea level, let the boiled water rest for a minute before pouring. In the mountains water boils at less than 212 degrees so just go ahead and pour the just-boiled water over your freshly ground coffee.

The Coffee House Approach

If you think that the best brewed coffee needs a little more take the coffee house approach.

  • Americano
  • Breve
  • Cappucino
  • Latte
  • Mocha

Americano is espresso cut to half strength with water. When American GI’s discovered espresso in Europe in the aftermath of WWII they preferred coffee like mom made back in Des Moines. The request to dilute the espresso was so common that coffee houses came to refer to diluted espresso as café Americano.

Breve and latte are espresso made with steamed milk in the case of latte and half and half in the case of breve. Café au lait will pass for latte and breve is strong coffee with a lot of milk and cream.

Cappuccino is espresso and hot milk when is then steamed to make foam. Typically cappuccino comes with a dollop of whipped cream on the top.

Mocha is the coffee for chocolate lovers. Order it made with organic coffee house coffee, organic chocolate syrup, and organic milk for triple treat.

The best brewed coffee, traditional at home, or coffee house, starts with the basic steps.