Mice with Alzheimer’s Should Not Drink Coffee

We have reported numerous health benefits from drinking coffee. Included in our reports was one entitled Forget Your Alzheimer’s and Drink Your Coffee.

Research carried out at the University of South Florida implies that it may be time to forget your Alzheimer’s and drink your coffee. Alzheimer’s disease is the condition seen often in old age in which a person is unable to remember recent events. It is also the stuff of jokes about every time a person in mid-life or older forgets something.

The scientists at South Florida studied a strain of mice that has been bred to get Alzheimer’s disease, or at least the mouse variety. These critters develop high levels of beta amyloid in their brain and then the plaques inhibit nerve transmission. These are the same findings that researchers see in humans. Because mice live shorter lives than humans, old age comes sooner. Thus scientists can see sooner if whatever they have been doing to the mice has had an effect. Now these folks have been having their little research subjects drink coffee.


The result of that study was this.

Coffee is a natural for this purpose. Caffeine and something else in coffee reliably reduce beta amyloid levels in the brain of mice.

That is to say the damaging plaques that seem to lead to the Alzheimer’s equivalent in mice are reduced by drinking coffee.

So, if drinking coffee is likely to reduce the precursors of Alzheimer’s we should drink coffee. Right?

But, now researchers have studied mice that already have the mouse equivalent of Alzheimer’s. And they have found that consuming the equivalent of what would be 5 cups of coffee a day worsens symptoms in the rodents.

And, if grandpa already has Alzheimer’s he should not drink coffee. Right?

Applying Mouse Research to Humans

Is it a valid assumption that what applies to mice will apply to humans as well? To make sense of this we looked online at an article in Science: How Things Work.

The mouse’s DNA looks startlingly like ours; in fact, we share more than 90 percent of the same genes as a mouse.

But dogs and pigs are more closely related to us. But people are uncomfortable sacrificing large numbers of these animals in the name of science.

Mice might not be the closest animals to us genetically, but they are one of the closest that we feel comfortable using in studies.

And mice mature faster so that researchers can test various treatments and get results in a year or two instead of waiting a dozen or more years in other animals of six to eight decades in humans.

As a practical matter mice are easier to study and the studies produce quicker results. But, there is not a one to one correlation between people and rodents. Thus, it might provide useful insight to look at how mice with Alzheimer’s react to coffee but a more reliable way to test this is to give Grandpa a cup of coffee or two and see how he does. In the case of drinking coffee the results are virtually immediate so the mice do not give us anything useful in terms of an early result.

Organic Coffee: No Caffeine

There is really only one organic coffee without caffeine and that is made using the Swiss Water method. People have been removing caffeine from coffee for decades. The earliest methods are still used these are the direct and indirect solvent methods. They get the caffeine out of the coffee but are not organic methods.

Indirect Solvent Method

Coffee beans are soaked for several hours in hot water just below the boiling point. This removes caffeine but also other chemicals that give coffee its flavor and aroma.

Then the water is drawn off to another container and where a solvent is added. The solvent binds to the caffeine. Then the mixture is re-heated the caffeine and volatile solvent combination evaporates. When the beans are added to the remaining mixture, they reabsorb the remaining chemicals and regain some of the coffee flavor.

Direct Solvent Method

In the direct solvent method coffee beans are steamed for about half an hour. For the next ten hours they are repeatedly rinsed with the solvent. Finally, the solvent is drained off and the beans are steamed one las time.

Neither of these methods qualifies as organic.

CO2 Method

This is a non-solvent means of decaffeinating coffee. It works for very large batches and is used for regular coffee in a huge scale. The problem is that the process is very expensive and is only economical when used on a large scale.

Coffee beans are put under pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch with liquid carbon dioxide in a stainless steel tank. The CO2 dissolves the caffeine and leaves the other coffee constituents alone. When the CO2 is removed from the tank it passes briefly though a gas phase when it loses its caffeine and can be used again.

This process qualifies as organic but is too expensive to use except for huge batches of regular coffee.

Swiss Water Method

This is an organic method to decaffeinate coffee and is certified as such. It is also applicable to reasonable batch sizes making it appropriate for organic coffee.

This means of decaffeination was discovered 80 years ago but has only be in use for about 30 as it required adjustments to make it cost effective.

Caffeine is removed from coffee beans with hot water. The hot water is passed through a large pore activated charcoal filter which traps the caffeine but allows smaller antioxidant and other molecules to pass through.

Then new beans are soaked with the caffeine poor but antioxidant rich water. Via osmosis caffeine leaves the beans while antioxidants remain. This process provides a coffee that is 99.95% caffeine free and is certified as such. Swiss Water decaf is labeled as such and is the only commercially available organic coffee without caffeine.

Unfortunately, there is no good way to decaffeinate coffee at home so you cannot purchase your favorite coffee and then remove the caffeine. But you can buy Arabica coffee which is lower in caffeine than Robusta and you can buy organic coffee from Colombia.

How Does Coffee Block the Effects of Marijuana?

We have commented on many scientific studies relating to the health effects of drinking coffee. However, the bulk of these studies use reported coffee intake and reported health results. They are associative studies and do not get to the mechanics of how coffee with its antioxidants and caffeine may be helping people live longer, have better sex, or improve athletic performance. This may be about to change. Researchers at Northwestern University have been looking deeply into the metabolic effects of drinking coffee. Live Science reports on a study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine and comments that coffee could be the opposite of cannabis. In short, how does coffee block the effects of marijuana?

According to a new study, your morning Joe causes a drop in the levels of certain substances that are linked to the body’s system for responding to marijuana.

The levels of these substances – metabolites found in what’s known as the endocannabinoid system – decrease in people who drink between four and eight cups of coffee a day, according to the study, published today (March 15) in the Journal of Internal Medicine. Endocannabinoids are molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors, which are found all over the nervous system, as well as in immune and endocrine tissue. The body makes its own endocannabinoids, but it also responds to foreign cannabinoids, like the ones found in the leaves of plants of the Cannabis genus.

How Does Coffee Block the Effects of Marijuana?

It would appear that drinking coffee hastens the breakdown of metabolites of cannabis. Thus, coffee blocks the effects of marijuana by getting rid of it faster from the body.

In addition, the study noted effects of coffee on steroid metabolites as well and the author commented on how these effects may help explain how coffee affects the incidence of Type II diabetes and various kinds of cancer.

Do You Really Need to Understand the Science to Enjoy and Benefit from the Coffee?

When you start your car in the morning you really do not want to have to worry about or understand the function of every piece of equipment under the hood. And when you make your morning coffee or buy a cup at the coffee house you do not need to understand the metabolic results of drinking your cup of Java.

The value of the associative studies that we have reported is that they tell you what the bottom line is. Which is to say, if you drink coffee you will probably live longer than if you do not. If you drink coffee the benefits are more pronounced if you are more than 50 years old. And, there are a whole host of bad diseases which you will be less likely to get if you are a coffee drinker, with the best benefits being in the four to six cups a day range.

What Do You Do?

Coffee is good for you. And the science is getting better to explain just why that is. In the meantime, drink Arabica organic coffee instead of regular in order to avoid the more than 100 impurities that may be found in regular coffee. And the best Arabica coffee, organic or not, typically comes from Colombia. Check with us at Buy Organic Coffee for the details.

What Is Honest Organic Coffee?

There is a new name on the bottled cold brewed coffee scene. The largest seller of soft drinks and other non-alcoholic beverage in the world, Coca Cola, is marketing a product called Honest Organic Coffee. If you are interested in bottled cold brewed coffee to go this might be a good choice.

A refreshing summer drink is cold brewed coffee. Cold brewed coffee is about two thirds less acidic than espresso or percolator coffee. It has to do with extracting caffeine and healthy antioxidants but less acid using a slow, cool extraction process. Basically the coffee just diffuses out of the ground beans over a few hours. And now, if you do not want to spend the time making your own cold brew coffee, you can buy bottled cold brew coffee and store it in your frig!

But, it turns out that while Honest Organic Coffee is really organic it is coffee that has been brewed, canned and cooled. It is not necessarily cold brewed coffee. Nevertheless, the organic part addresses one of our concerns about bottled or canned coffee.

Bottled cold brew coffee sounds interesting but if you like the idea of healthy organic coffee is the cold brewed bottled coffee organic? And how to the organic coffee antioxidants preserve in a bottle?

Coca Cola is launching the Honest Organic Coffee brand in Great Britain with not just plain coffee but bottled coffee house coffee as well. The trade publication Packaging News reports on Coca Cola’s launch of cold coffee drinks.

Launching in March, there will be two great tasting variants in the organic Honest Coffee range – Latte and Mocha. The product range will tap into the growing consumer demand for RTD coffee products in GB, a sector which is worth £66m and growing by 20% year on year.

The coffee drinks will be available in a re-sealable 240ml single PET, designed to suit consumers with an on-the-go lifestyle – with workplace and higher education among the key channels for the product. Made with Arabica beans, the products are organic and exempt from the soft drinks tax that comes into effect in April. The 42.5% coffee content and lower sugar delivers a taste profile that is less sweet than some RTD coffee options, appealing to consumers who want a more authentic cold coffee experience.

The appeal of cold coffee is that you can simply go to your refrigerator and take out a can or bottle instead of having to go to the coffee shop and stand in line or wait in your car for drive up service. And, of course, there are no issues with hot coffee burns for which Starbucks had to pay a customer.

And when buying coffee house coffee you should also be aware of how hot it might be and if the lid is on tight when you buy for takeout.

A Florida woman who was severely burned after the lid popped off a cup of Starbucks coffee and spilled on her lap was awarded $100,000 for her injuries Thursday.

A Starbucks representative testified during the trial that the coffee company receives 80 complaints a month about issues with lids popping off or leaking.

In our article how, How Hot Is Starbucks Coffee, we cited expert opinion about hot coffee and burns. The Burn Foundation discusses hot liquid burns.

When tap water reaches 140º F, it can cause a third degree (full thickness) burn in just five seconds.

Hot Water Causes Third Degree Burns

in 1 second at 156º
in 2 seconds at 149º
in 5 seconds at 140º
in 15 seconds at 133º

How hot is Starbucks coffee? If the lady actually suffered 3rd degree burns the coffee was probably at least 140 degrees and more likely 150 or above.

That is the argument for products like Honest Organic Coffee instead of takeout at Starbucks or McDonalds.

Organic Coffee for Sale

Where can you find organic coffee for sale and how can you know that it is high quality and fresh? The best organic coffee comes from places like Colombia. Arabica coffee is the gold standard for quality but you also want fresh beans and not ones that were in storage for years. And to make sure that your Arabica coffee is organic look for proof of organic coffee certification on the bag.

Organic coffee differs from regular coffee in several aspects. The soil in which organic coffee is grown must have been verified as free from prohibited substances for at least three years. In addition there must be distinct boundaries between land on which organic coffee is grown and land where pesticides, herbicides, and prohibited chemical fertilizers are used. This guarantees that drift of substances sprayed or otherwise applied on adjacent land will not contaminate the organic plot of land. Organic coffee certification includes the adherence to a specific and verifiable plan for all practices and procedures from planting to crop maintenance, to harvest, de-husking, bagging, transport, roasting, packaging, and final transport. Along the way procedures must be in place at every step to insure that there is no contamination of the healthy organic coffee produced in pristine soil with regular coffee produced on soil exposed to herbicides, pesticides, and organic fertilizers.

There are many great coffees grown by organic methods but your only proof of organic content is the USDA, UTZ or Rainforest Alliance seal on the bag. That means someone visited the coffee farm and checked to make sure the farmer was following set guidelines.

Old versus Fresh

A few years ago coffee farmers in Brazil put coffee beans into storage rather than sell them because prices were so low. Then, after a few years, coffee prices went up and coffee farmers sold every bean that they had. Unfortunately, a lot of that old coffee was only good for sale to institutional buyers. In our recent article about organic coffee with the most antioxidants we wrote about the importance of coffee freshness.

And, before that, we wrote about how to get freshly roasted Colombian coffee.

Buy Organic Coffee to the Rescue

If you would like coffee that was just picked and processed and has been roasted within the last week or so contact us at BuyOrganicCoffee.org. We work with coffee roasters in places like Manizales or Chinchina in the heart of the Eje Cafetero. Order your coffee and we will have our partners select the freshest coffee beans, roast them to perfection, and send to your via express air delivery. That is how you can get freshly roasted Colombian coffee.

If you want the best organic coffee for sale, send us a message at BuyOrganicCoffee.org. We will be pleased to find the best organic coffee for sale in Colombia where they grow the best coffee. And then we will arrange to have that great organic or otherwise great Colombian coffee sent directly to you whether you are interested in green coffee beans or recently roasted.

Organic Coffee with the Most Antioxidants

We have written time and again about the health benefits of coffee and how regular and organic coffee antioxidants are central to these benefits. We have also noted that by drinking organic coffee you can avoid the many impurities too often found in regular coffee. So, organic coffee is a better choice than regular coffee but which is the organic coffee with the most antioxidants? Here are the facts about how to get the organic coffee with the most antioxidants in your cup.

Robusta versus Arabica

Robusta coffee beans not only have much more caffeine than higher quality and better tasting Arabica but green Robusta coffee beans also have double the antioxidants. Years ago the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published an article comparing antioxidant activity in coffee, tea, and cocoa.

Green coffee beans of Robusta coffee exhibited a 2-fold higher antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee, but after roasting this difference was no longer significant.

So Robusta starts out with more antioxidants but they do not survive roasting.


Health.com writes about antioxidants and light versus dark roast.

For the new study, published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, Korean researchers compared coffees of several different roasting levels, analyzing their caffeine content and levels of chlorogenic acid, a well-known antioxidant. They also exposed extract of each coffee to human cell cultures to test their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

The results? The lighter the roast, the higher the chlorogenic acid content-and the better the coffee extract protected human cells against oxidation (cell damage) and inflammation when tested in the lab. Caffeine levels, on the other hand, did not vary significantly between samples.

This seems to make sense given the fact that the excess antioxidant levels in Robusta go away when the beans are roasted. So, excessive roasting will also reduce the level of chlorogenic acid antioxidants in coffee. However, there are also antioxidants that are produced in roasting. The so-called “Maillard reaction” produces new antioxidants when green coffee beans are browned. Your goal, if you want organic coffee with the most antioxidants, is to roast your organic coffee but not excessively.

Time and Ground Coffee Are Your Enemies

When antioxidants in coffee are exposed to air they oxidize! Because grinding coffee exposes more coffee surface area to the air ground coffee loses its flavor and its antioxidants faster than roasted whole bean coffee. Years ago we offers some tips about how to store coffee and preserve freshness.

It is because coffee starts to lose its flavor (and antioxidants) as soon as the roasting process is completed. Thus roasting takes place close to the market where coffee will be sold. You will want to store coffee and preserve freshness but you will also want to purchase small quantities of coffee, enjoy our coffee, and buy more when you run out. Coffee is not a fine wine. It does not improve with age.

If you purchase a large quantity of wholesale coffee put the larger amount in an air tight container and take your daily coffee out of a smaller container, replenishing as needed. Small and airtight containers can be store in the freezer but only until the first use. The same rules apply for regular coffee and healthy organic coffee. Coffee ages and it ages more if it is warm, wet, and exposed to the air.

It turns out that the most important factor if you want organic coffee with the most antioxidants, you need to buy new and not old beans, store properly, and grind just before making your coffee.

How Can You Get Freshly Roasted Colombian Coffee?

The best coffee is Arabica and the best Arabica coffee comes from Colombia.

There are two basic species of coffee, Arabica and Robusta. Arabica coffee is generally believed to be the first type of coffee to be cultivated. When you buy Arabica organic coffee you are choosing the species of coffee with superior taste according to many experts. Café Arabica also contains less caffeine than Robusta. Although wild Arabica coffee plants can reach 12 meters in height coffee growers typically prune the plant to no more than 5 meters and often as short as 2 meters high to make the coffee easier to pick. Arabica coffee grows best at just under a mile in altitude although it is grown at sea level and as high as 7,500 feet.

The Colombian coffee growing region known as the Eje Cafetero has ideal soil and climate for growing coffee and the coffee farmers in the region have been growing high quality Arabica coffees for a century and a half. So, if you want great Arabica coffee, look for coffee from Colombia.

Juan Valdez

If you want to make sure the coffee you buy at the market is Colombian look for Juan Valdez. Juan Valdez is a fictional character invented by the Colombian Coffee Growers Association. When you see Juan of the label you can be assured that the coffee is 100% Colombian. But how can you be assured that the coffee is fresh?

Coffee Freshness: Green Coffee

The coffee that you buy has been dried, had the fruit of the coffee berry removed and has been threshed to remove the outer husk of the bean. At that point the green coffee beans are at their freshest and when properly stored and transported green coffee retains a reasonable degree of freshness for up to two years. Coffee house coffee is made from freshly roasted green coffee beans. But, how old are the green beans? If the coffee house got a great deal on old beans they are making a better profit and you are drinking inferior coffee!

Coffee Freshness: Roasted Coffee

There is an art to roasting coffee. When we visited the roaster at Tilladora Manizales last year the roaster explained that perhaps one out of five batches that he roasts ends up being sold to institutions instead of high end buyers. And the freshness of roasted coffee lasts for up to six months when properly stored. Most of us do not have the skill, time, or interest to roast our own coffee. And we do not know how long ago the coffee that we are buying was roasted. So, how can you get fresh and freshly roasted Colombian coffee if you do not live in the Eje Cafetero?

Buy Organic Coffee to the Rescue

If you would like coffee that was just picked and processed and has been roasted within the last week or so contact us at BuyOrganicCoffee.org. We work with coffee roasters in places like Manizales or Chinchina in the heart of the Eje Cafetero. Order your coffee and we will have our partners select the freshest coffee beans, roast them to perfection, and send to your via express air delivery. That is how you can get freshly roasted Colombian coffee.

Last Word on Coffee: It’s Good for You!

We have written extensively about the health benefits of coffee. While there are still a few naysayers, here is the last word on coffee: it’s good for you! The Annual Review of Nutrition published a comprehensive review entitled Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: an Umbrella Review. Here is the short version.

To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson’s disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson’s disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Of the 12 unique acute outcomes examined in the selected 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity, and caffeine was associated with a rise in blood pressure. Given the spectrum of conditions studied and the robustness of many of the results, these findings indicate that coffee can be part of a healthful diet.

These people did not study any patients. Rather they looked at all of the studies done regarding coffee and its effects on health. There was a lot of statistical analysis involved and in the end the results confirmed much of what has been written about coffee and health.

Coffee and Diabetes

This last word on coffee confirms what we wrote years ago about how more organic coffee can lead to less diabetes.

The bottom line of the UCLA study was that drinking 4 or more cups of coffee a day, with caffeine, reduces Type II diabetes incidence by 56%, more than half.

The benefit of drinking coffee goes up with the number of cups consumed a day up to six. This is also confirmed in the last word on coffee study.

Coffee and Cancer

Several years ago we wrote that you might avoid cancer by drinking coffee.

Prostate cancer, endometrial cancer, and colon cancer may all occur less often in long term coffee drinkers. To avoid cancer by drinking coffee it appears as though one needs to drink as much as four cups a day although some research studies show benefits in individuals with lower levels of coffee consumption. In general the benefits of coffee in the case of reducing the incidence of cancer have to do with chemicals called antioxidants found in roasted coffee.

The last word study confirms a decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers in coffee drinkers.

Degenerative Diseases

Research has linked to coffee to a decreased incidence of degenerative diseases and the last word study confirms the link to Parkinson’s disease.

According to a study of persons on Olmstead County, Minnesota, there is an inverse relationship between the amount of coffee that people drink and their chances of getting Parkinson’s disease. Nearly two hundred persons were followed for twenty years (1976-1995). Researchers noted the amount of coffee that people drank and whether or not they developed Parkinson’s disease. When other things that might affect the incidence of Parkinson’s disease, like smoking, were excluded, there was a clear association between higher coffee consumption and a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease.

The last word on coffee is that it is good for you and up to six cups a day, more coffee is better.

Egg in Your Coffee versus Egg Coffee

Remember in the movie Rocky when Sylvester Stallone drinks raw eggs before going out on his morning run? The rationale was that he needed all that protein because he was in training for a major boxing match. Now there is a new craze in the world of coffee. People are putting a raw egg in their coffee before going to work out. A couple of years ago it was butter coffee.

Butter coffee, also recently called bulletproof coffee, is currently the rage in some places. Butter coffee is eight ounces of freshly brewed coffee plus a teaspoonful each of unsalted butter and coconut oil. There are variations on the theme but the claim of those who like butter coffee is that it gives you more energy, helps you lose weight and avoids the ingestion of so-called inflammatory sugars. It turns out that butter coffee is not really a new idea. In Ethiopia where coffee was first discovered putting butter in freshly brewed coffee is a custom.

Whether you are putting butter and coconut oil in your coffee or a fresh egg, you are getting more calories which you had better burn off with exercise. Otherwise you are probably reducing some of the health benefits of coffee.

A downside to putting a raw egg in your coffee is that there is a risk that the raw egg contains bacteria and will make you sick. We went to Eggsafety.org for more info.

Always thoroughly cook eggs to destroy pathogens and reduce risk of illness.

These bacteria have the ability to result in human illness, and egg farmers vigilantly work to prevent them.

The bacteria that are dangerous to people and can be found in raw eggs include salmonella, bacillus cereus, campylobacter, and staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections result in mild symptoms and severe infections can result in death.

So, is it really dangerous to put a raw egg in your coffee? The point is that you need to heat the egg to a high enough temperature for long enough to kill any bacteria. That means there is less risk if you drop a raw egg into the coffee that you just made with boiling water than if you drop a raw egg into a coffee house latte or, even worse, cold brewed coffee.

But, didn’t your great grandmother make egg coffee back on the farm? When great grandma made egg coffee she boiled the coffee in a big pot and added a couple of eggs, shells and all, to the pot. The protein in the egg and the calcium in the egg shells helped buffer the bitterness of the coffee resulting in a milder brew. After boiling the heck out of the coffee and eggs there was no risk of infection from Grandma’s coffee!

Is there a nutritional difference between egg in your coffee and egg coffee? Grandma did not add enough eggs to make one per cup of coffee so, yes, there is a lot more egg, protein and calories in you cup of coffee with one egg than with the old farm egg coffee variety. But, remember that the rationale is to drink egg coffee before a workout and make sure to heat the water and egg enough to kill any germs.

Why Is Coffee Bitter?

Coffee has a unique and, for some, an acquired taste. Caffeine plus two compounds created when coffee is roasted result in a bitter taste that is unique to java. Caffeine is the minor partner in the bitterness endeavor. The main two culprits are both antioxidants, which are the chemicals responsible for so many of the health benefits of coffee. The first antioxidants are chlorogenic acid lactones. These chemical antioxidants are created in light and medium roast coffees. A more potent cause of bitter taste in coffee comes from phenylindanes which are created in a dark roast coffee. But, there is more to the story than how you roast your coffee. How you prepare coffee is important as well.

Leaving Coffee in the French Press Too Long

Whether you like a light, medium or dark roast, the longer the water is in contact with the coffee grounds the more chemicals, and bitterness, you will extract. The best example of this phenomenon is when you use a French press and make more coffee with a than you will use right away. You let the coffee and grounds remain in the French press and return later for another cup or two. The odds are that more of the bitter antioxidants will have dissolved into the water making your second and third cups increasingly bitter.

Maximum Coffee Ground Surface Area

You could make coffee from putting whole roasted beans in hot water. But, you would need to wait a really long time for the antioxidants and caffeine to leach out and even then you would end up with an awfully weak cup of coffee. The reasons we grind coffee are to increase the surface area of coffee that is exposed to the hot water and to decrease the distance that caffeine and antioxidants need to move to get out of the coffee grounds and into the water. If you do not like bitter coffee, you need to be careful how finely you grind your beans. Very finely ground coffee gives up its caffeine and antioxidants quickly and thoroughly. This is a common reason why your coffee is bitter.

Hotter Water Dissolves Coffee Ingredients More Thoroughly

One reason that cold brewed coffee is less bitter than brewed coffee is that the bitter antioxidants are not as quickly or thoroughly removed from the grounds. The hotter the water you use to brew coffee the more antioxidants you will get in your cup. When you boil water to make coffee you have water at 212 degrees Fahrenheit if you live at sea level. If you live in the Eje Cafetero in Manizales, Colombia your boiling water reaches 198 degrees Fahrenheit. If you live at lower elevations and want to avoid coffee that is too bitter let the water sit a few minutes after removing from the stove. The ideal temperature for brewing coffee according to the National Coffee Association is between 195 and 205 degrees Fahrenheit. The folks in Manizales at 7,500 feet altitude can make their coffee with boiling water.  Those of us who live in the low lands should wait a minute or two to let our just-boiled water cool ever so slightly.