What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee?

The Bourbon coffee variety dates back to the 1700s when French missionaries first introduced it on Bourbon Island in the Indian Ocean.  The island is called Réunion today and the missionaries moved on to Latin America in the middle of the 1800s. It was first grown in Brazil around 1860 and cultivation spread from there throughout Latin America. Because the standard Bourbon variety is susceptible to coffee leaf rust, it does best at higher altitudes at or above 1,800 meters where leaf rust is less likely to occur. Bourbon produces a tall coffee plant, excellent coffee, and medium to low production. It much of Latin America, basic Bourbon has been replaced by offshoots such as Caturra, Catuai, and Mundo Novo. But, around Huila, Colombia in the Andes Mountains, growers still specialize in growing Bourbon coffee and a cross-bred variety, pink Bourbon.

Pink Bourbon Finca La Paula
Pink Bourbon Coffee – Finca La Paula

Pink Bourbon Coffee from Huila, Colombia

Pink Bourbon gets its name from the fact that the ripe berries are pink instead of red. Coffee farmers around Huila, Colombia produce the variety by cross-breeding yellow and red Bourbon. It has greater resistance to leaf rust than either the yellow or red variety. Pink bourbon has spicy-jasmine notes and a hint of caramel. This is an excellent, artisanal coffee that can be purchased from retailers in the USA. The problem is that you are commonly buying beans from the previous year’s harvest. However, if you buy Arabica coffee directly from Colombia via Buy Organic Coffee, you can get fresh pink Bourbon from Huila, Colombia, either green beans or freshly roasted and shipped directly to you.

What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee - Nevado del Huila
Nevado del Huila – Tallest Volcano in Colombia

Where Is Huila, Colombia?

Huila is a department in the country of Colombia. Its capital is Neiva and the department lies southeast of the city of Cali. The volcano, Nevado de Huila, is the tallest volcano in Colombia at 17, 598 feet (5,364 meters) and the entire department sits on the Colombian massif. The department holds the headwaters of the Magdalena River, the largest in Colombia. With rich, volcanic soil, high elevations, lots of rain, and a culture of coffee growing, Huila produces some of the finest coffee within the Colombian coffee growing axis. The fact that local growers have found to a way to grow an old variety (Bourbon) and increase its leaf rust resistance is a big plus. Even better, pink Bourbon is such an excellent coffee. The key for enjoying this great coffee if you live outside of Colombia is to contact us at Buy Organic Coffee. You can leave a message in our comment section or send an email to buyorganicoffee@yahoo.com. Be certain to let us know if you want small quantities for personal use or commercial quantities, green coffee versus roasted and whole bean versus ground. (We strongly advise against asking for ground coffee as you will be losing most of the “freshness advantage” of shipping directly from Colombia.

What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee? – Slideshare Version

What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee? – Doc

What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee? – PDF

Organic Coffee from Caldas, Colombia

We have written frequently about Colombian Arabica organic coffee and particularly about coffee from the area around Manizales, Colombia. Manizales is the capital of the department (state) of Caldas. Old Caldas (Viejo Caldas) is the historic heart of the Colombian coffee growing district in the highlands of the Andean Mountains. This region has been a coffee-producing Mecca for nearly two hundred years as we noted in our article about Colombian coffee history. While other coffee-growing regions of the world have chosen to use coffee varieties that are sun tolerant or use mechanical coffee picking, the growers or regular Arabica and organic coffee from Caldas, Colombia have not. Coffee varieties are chosen for quality and not convenience in Caldas and picking on the mountainsides is always by hand.

Artisanal Coffee from Caldas, Colombia

The focus of coffee production in the historic heart of coffee growing in Colombia has always been to produce the best Arabica coffee rather than producing the most. Families in Caldas have been growing coffee for generations and take pride in the quality of their production. Much of the coffee grown in this region is organic in fact if not in name. That is because these coffee farmers have always used sustainable practices even though they do not pay an agency like Bio Latina to certify their crops. Although much of coffee production in Caldas, Colombia goes directly for general consumption, the vast majority is artisanal in quality. That is, the coffee is single original, harvested at specific altitudes (mostly very high), and grown in a specific kind of soil (volcanic).

Organic Coffee from Caldas, Colombia

Organic coffee from Colombia can be difficult to find. This is because many organic growers have long-term contracts with buyers in Japan, Europe, or the USA. All of their production is spoken for. Other growers are organic in fact but not certified and not known to be organic outside of their specific communities. However, if you are interested in organic coffee from Caldas, Colombia, we at BuyOrganicCoffee.org have contacts through the Colombian coffee growing region and specifically around Manizales in the department of Caldas. If you are interested in artisanal organic coffee from Colombia and especially from the Caldas region, please feel free to leave us a message in the comments section on our site and we will get back to you.

Caldas, Colombia

The Caldas department of Colombia has elevations of 7,000 feet and above. It is in the high elevations where Arabica coffee grows best and where many of the old Caldas coffee-growing families have their coffee farms. The soil is volcanic and the growing areas are punctuated with tall mountains that reach above the tree line such as Nevada del Ruiz, the 15,000 foot still-active volcano.

Organic Coffee from Caldas, Colombia - Nevado del Ruiz
Nevado del Ruiz

This view of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano is from Avenida Santander in the city of Manizales, the capital of the department of Caldas and the home of the Colombian Coffee Growers Association.

Here is where coffee grows from the lowlands (three to five thousand feet) to the highlands (over 8,000 feet) and the focus on coffee growing is and has always been to produce the highest quality organic coffee from Caldas, Colombia.

Coffee Recipes

As a coffee lover, you may enjoy your morning cup black, or with sugar and cream. Then again, you may drop by the coffee house on the way to work and partake of something a little more exotic. Basic coffee house coffee starts with espresso and the standards are espresso, Americano, Breve, Cappuccino, Latte, and Mocha. But, today it does not stop with these basics. You can get an iced pumpkin spice latte or a caramel macchiato as well. Maybe you would like to make Irish coffee with a little Irish whiskey! With the right coffee recipes you can make these and more right at home!

Coffee Recipes

  • Coffee recipes starting with espresso
  • Coffee recipes starting with brewed coffee
  • Coffee recipes that include alcohol
  • Recipes for Iced coffee drinks
  • Cold Brewed Coffee Recipes
  • Chicory Coffee

Coffee Recipes Starting with Espresso

The Bronx Bomber

Coffee Recipes - Bronx Bombers
Bronx Bombers of an Other Era

No, we are not talking about the New York Yankees, Babe Ruth, Mickey Mantle, Lou Gehrig, Roger Maris, or Joe DiMaggio! A Bronx bomber is coffee, gin, absinthe, and ice.

  • Make a double shot of espresso
  • Fill your cocktail shaker with cracked ice
  • Add an ounce and a half of gin and an eighth of an ounce of absinthe.
  • Add the espresso
  • Shake for a minute then then pour through a strainer.
  • The process may be repeated as often as desired.
Bronx Bomber
Bronx Bomber

Home Made Pumpkin Spice Latte

So, you have become addicted to pumpkin spice latte at the coffee shop. Can you make this at home?

To do this right you need to use your new espresso maker.

  • 2 cups milk (non-dairy or dairy)
  • 2 tablespoons pumpkin puree (cook a small pumpkin and puree)
  • 1 to 3 tablespoons sugar
  • 1 tablespoon vanilla extract
  • One-half teaspoon pumpkin pie spice (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, Allspice, cloves)
  • One-half cup of espresso
  • Whipping cream

Coffee Recipes That Include Alcohol

Irish Coffee

Irish coffee started when a flight from Ireland to New York had to return to Ireland because of inclement weather. The airport chef greeted the returning travelers with a hot drink of coffee, whiskey, brown sugar, and whipped cream. This drink became very popular. When people asked what kind of coffee it was, the staff said that it was Irish coffee (as opposed to Brazilian, Colombian, Ethiopian, or Indonesian). An American traveler brought the recipe back to America and it caught on. Here is our recipe for Irish coffee.

Use Arabica coffee for the best flavor and aroma, Irish whiskey, whipping cream, and brown sugar.

Preheat the glass with hot water or a little coffee and then discard the liquid. Then add the coffee followed by the other, cooler, ingredients. This technique ensures that your Irish coffee is hot as well as tasty.

You will need:

  • Coffee mug (glass is traditional for this drink)
  • Tablespoon
  • 4 ounces of freshly ground and brewed Arabica coffee
  • 1 ounce whiskey, preferably Irish
  • 2 tsp brown sugar
  • 1 ounce whipped cream (lightly whipped)
  • Nutmeg and/or cinnamon (optional)


  • Grind the coffee beans
  • Make the whipped cream
  • Brew the coffee
  • Pre-heat the mug(s)
  • Add brown sugar to mug
  • Add hot coffee and stir
  • Add whiskey and stir again
  • Pour the lightly whipped cream (over the back of a tablespoon) to sit on the top of the coffee
  • Sprinkle nutmeg and/or cinnamon on top of the whipped cream and serve
Coffee Recipes - Irish Coffee
Irish Coffee

This is a great drink for a snowy winter evening, especially after outdoor activities.

Hints: When you brew your coffee, have a little hot water left over for pre-heating the mug(s) and you want the lightly whipped cream to cover the Irish coffee and not float like a white ice cube on top of the drink.

A little cinnamon and or nutmeg sprinkled on top of the whipped cream are an American addition to this treat and are optional.

Rüdesheimer Kaffee

A nice Germanic alternative to Irish coffee is Rüdesheimer Kaffee. This drink was invented by television chef Hans Karl Adam in 1957 and named for the German city of Rüdesheim. It became an instant hit in German coffee houses.

What you need:

  • Your choice of Arabica coffees
  • Asbach Uralt brandy (any brandy will do in a pinch)
  • Vanilla Sugar (sugar mixed with vanilla extract)
  • Whipping cream
  • Chocolate flakes (semi-sweet chocolate)
  • Barbecue lighter or long matches
Coffee Recipes - Asbach Brandy
Asbach Brandy

Notes: Ideally this drink is made with espresso but a good strong Arabica brew will do just fine. And, you will not find vanilla sugar outside of Germany and Eastern Europe. Simply add a few vanilla beans to a cup of sugar and blend in a food processor. (Baking Moment)

A purist will use Asbach Uralt brandy and serve the drink in special Rüdesheimer Kaffee cups. (Weinquelle)

Rüdesheimer Kaffee is put together at the table so all of the ingredients and tools need to be ready at the same time.


  • Grind the coffee beans
  • Make your whipped cream using a dash of vanilla sugar
  • Trim off flakes from a semisweet bar of chocolate
  • Have these ready as you brew your coffee
  • Add a jigger (large shot glass or one and a fourth ounces of Asbach Uralt brandy and sugar cubes to a coffee cup
  • Flambé (set on fire) using a long match or barbecue lighter and stir for a minute to dissolve the sugar
  • Add the coffee your strong coffee or espresso
  • Spread the whipped cream across the top and then garnish with the chocolate flakes
Coffee Recipes - Rüdesheimer Kaffee Cup
Rüdesheimer Kaffee Cup

Serve your guests and accept their complements.

Another Note: Because of the steps involved and what is basically performance art in serving this drink, it is best to try it out by yourself and get the steps right before doing this in front of your guests. And, if you need to use up a little of the German brandy while you practice, so be it!

Recipes for Iced Coffee Drinks

Black Tie Coffee

In Thailand this is a traditional drink. Black tie coffee ingredients include black tea, espresso, star anise, orange blossom water, sugar, cloves, and cream or condensed milk, plus the coffee. It is served over ice.

Notes: You can buy a black tea mix including the other ingredients (minus the coffee) to make the tea. Or you can buy black tea and the individual ingredients for a fresher result.

For this drink you really want to make espresso and not just strong coffee.

Orange blossom water is also called “Essential Oil of Neroli.” It comes from distilling blossoms of the “bitter orange tree.” (Nielsen Massey)

Make the Thai tea first:

  • 5 cups of water
  • 6 bags of either black tea or Thai red tea, or 1 1/2 tablespoons loose tea
  • 2 star anise
  • 3 whole cloves
  • 2 tablespoons of sugar
  • Ice, a fourth of a cup
  • Sweetened condensed milk

Making the tea:

  • In a medium saucepan bring the water to a boil
  • Take the pan away from the heat and add tea bags, cloves, and star anise. Allow to steep for ten minutes
  • Using a strainer or large spoon, remove the tea, cloves, and star anise from the steeped tea
  • Add sugar and stir until dissolved
  • Put aside to allow the tea to cool to room temperature

Note: If you are just going to drink the tea, fill tall glasses with ice cubes, add tea to three-fourths full, and top off with sweetened condensed milk.
(The Kitchn)

Making Black Tie Coffee

  • Espresso coffee beans finely ground
  • Thai tea
  • Sweetened condensed milk or cream


  • Make a double shot of espresso for each tall glass of Black Tie coffee
  • Fill tall glasses with ice
  • Fill two-thirds full with tea
  • Add double shot of espresso
  • Top off with a layer of cream or sweetened condensed milk
  • Serve
Coffee Recipes - Black Tie Coffee
Thai Tea for Making Black Tie Coffee

Iced Mint Mocha

Mocha is coffee and chocolate. Cool this mixture, add ice, and blend with mint to make iced mint mocha for a hot summer day.

What you need to make two iced mint mochas:

  • Chocolate syrup, 2 tablespoonsful
  • Mint leaves, 10
  • Arabica coffee to make 8 ounces
  • Two scoops of crushed ice
  • Whipping cream

How to make them:

  • Make the coffee and let it cool to room temperature
  • While the coffee is cooling, whip the cream but not too much
  • Add coffee, chocolate, mint, and ice to the blender.
  • Start blending at the slowest speed and after half a minute increase to medium
  • Keep blending until the ice is all broken up
  • Pour into tall glasses
  • Top off with whipped cream and a dash of chocolate syrup
Coffee Recipes - Iced Mint Mocha
Iced Mint Mocha

(Blender Happy)

Cold Brewed Coffee Recipes

Cold Brewed Coffee and More

Cold brewed coffee is another great choice for a hot summer day, or for any time. Cold brewed coffee is steeped (like tea) at room temperature or in cold water for at least twelve hours. The resulting coffee is two-thirds less acidic than espresso or other hot-brewed coffees. This is because of the slow extraction absent a lot of heat. The caffeine content is higher and the flavor is smoother.

Making Cold Brewed Coffee

  • Good cold brewed coffee starts with good coffee. Use a lighter roast of a high quality Arabica and grind the beans to a coarse consistency.
  • If you use tap water, let it sit in an open container for a few hours to let the chlorine evaporate. Bottled water is a better choice but do not use distilled water.
  • Using a two quart pitcher, add one and three-fourths cups of ground coffee. Cover, place in the refrigerator, and forget for the next twelve hours.
  • The grounds will have settled to the bottom of the pitcher, but it does not hurt to pour through a strainer or cloth filter to remove any strays.

Note: Your coldbrewed coffee will often be stronger than you prefer. If that is the case you can add a little water, milk, or cream. Also, some folks like to add sugar, chocolate, or a little liquor, making this a cold brewed liqueur coffee.

Chicory Coffee

Chicory coffee is historically what people drink when there is no coffee. When the chicory root is roasted and ground up, it has a flavor similar to coffee. You can make chicory coffee part chicory and part coffee or just skip the coffee entirely. When you can commonly find this coffee is in New Orleans where they serve it with deep fried squares of bread dough dusted with powdered sugar (beignets).

  • You can grow chicory in your garden or buy from a well-stocked green grocer.
  • If you would like to try chicory coffee, here is how.
  • The chicory root should be fresh and clean. Slice and dice into small pieces and dry in the oven at low temperature or out in the sun. For a “dark roast” of chicory, roast for half an hour in the oven at 350 degrees.
  • You will want to grind the chicory “chips” a couple of times as they are full of fiber and do not grind as readily as your coffee beans.
  • For starters, use half coffee and half chicory and then adjust the ration according to your preference.
  • Brew this mixture and you will have a coffee with a malt-like aroma and flavor plus a hint of chocolate. It will be a bit more acidic than the coffee by itself.

If you want to do this right, try to find or make some beignets to snack on as your enjoy this drink.

Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

When we wrote recently about Colombian Arabica organic coffee we received several requests for information and pricing from folks who wanted to buy Arabica coffee directly from Colombia.

If you want good coffee, drink Arabica. If you want great coffee, look for Arabica coffee from Colombia. And if you want the best, look for Colombian Arabica organic coffee. If you want this great coffee shipped directly to you, contact us at Buy Organic Coffee.

The folks who contacted us after the article ranged from people who were simply interested in Colombian coffee to roasters across the globe who were interested in prices and the specifics of getting bulk wholesale green coffee beans shipped from Colombia. With our readers’ and clients’ questions in mind here is some useful information about our business connecting Colombian Arabica coffee growers to coffee lovers everywhere.


Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Arabica Coffee from Colombia


Yes you can buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Colombia ranks only behind Brazil in volume of Arabica coffee production. And Colombia only produces Arabica coffee varieties, no Robusta coffee beans. Much of Robusta production goes to provide caffeine for soft drinks. Colombian Arabica coffee beans go to make the best coffees in the world. The Colombia “Eje Cafetero” or coffee growing axis is also known as el “triangulo de café” or the coffee triangle. It is located west of the Colombian capital city of Bogotá and centered in the departments (states) of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. Parts of this region were involved in the decades-long Colombian Civil War and now as peace comes to the coffee producing regions are coming back into production. This is a mountainous region (Andes) with rich volcanic soil, lots of rain, and clouds which are conditions ideal for growing great coffee.


Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Map of Colombia


Is Your Colombian Coffee from the Store Fresh?

Years ago the Colombian Coffee Growers Association trademarked the Juan Valdez name and logo. When you see Juan and his burro on the label that means you are getting 100% Colombian coffee. Colombian coffee is always good coffee but Colombian coffee can get old just like any coffee. We just wrote an article about how long fresh roasted coffee beans last. In the article we noted that green coffee beans store longer than whole bean roasted coffee and whole bean roasted stores longer than ground coffee. And we noted that an issue is just how old the green coffee was when it got roasted. Coffee has a supply chain and it can be long. In Brazil, for example, due to an expensive local currency, coffee farmers put their green beans into storage for years and only sold them when the price, in the local currency, went up. Unfortunately, this green coffee was poor quality despite going into storage as high quality. If you want to be guaranteed fresh green coffee from Colombia it might just be best to buy Arabica coffee directly from Colombia.

Buy Colombian Coffee Directly from Colombia

Besides loving coffee and incessantly writing about coffee, we have come to know folks in the coffee industry in Colombia. Our focus has not been on the huge companies that dominate much of the industry but on small family operations that have been growing, processing, and roasting great Colombian Arabica coffee for generations. We mentioned one such operation in our article about coffee from Manizales, Colombia. Roasting is an art and coffee is their life in this part of the world.


Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Roasting Coffee


It used to be that the easiest way to get your fresh Arabica coffee from Colombia was to visit Manizales and bring back a suitcase filled with bags of coffee. Of course, one had to pass inspection by the soldiers checking luggage and their drug sniffing dog! But, a couple of years ago Colombia streamlined its export procedures for coffee which has made it easier for mere humans, instead of multinationals, to export coffee from Colombia.

Thus we are pleased to help our clients with getting freshly roasted Colombian Arabica coffee in smaller quantities delivered by air freight within days of roasting.

And, we are pleased to help clients buy commercial quantities of Arabica green coffee beans, ones that are fresh and not ones that have been in storage for years like the story about Brazil.

We have been asked for a price list. We do not maintain a price list. We do not have a warehouse full of coffee that we purchased last year and are trying to sell. When a client wants high quality Arabica coffee from Colombia we contact one of our suppliers, like the family operation in Manizales, and get the best price for the best coffee. The base price for coffee is set by the futures market in New York and if you are in the agricultural office in a village like Chinchiná, Colombia there will be a video monitor on the wall showing the up-to-the-minute New York price. That price is the base price from which all prices are calculated. The price for Colombian coffee goes up with the size of the bean. Arabica coffee grown at high altitudes ripens more slowly and grows larger. This is typically a finer coffee.

Colombian Coffee Grades

Green coffee is run through a series of screens with openings starting at size 17 = 17/64 inch. Larger beans are typically better and the largest are from Arabica grown more slowly at higher altitudes which are typically the best quality.

And coffee roasters need uniform bean size when roasting a batch, otherwise the small beans are over-done and the batch is bad.

The largest bean size in Colombian coffee is Supremo = size 17 followed by Excelso = size 15-16, USG (usual good quality) = size 14 and Caracol = size 12.


Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Coffee Screens


Organic, Coffee of Origin, Standard Colombian Arabica Coffee

There is a lot of Colombian Arabica coffee and it is relatively easy to find a decent price for our clients. Organic coffee is grown in smaller quantities and much of the organic production is already spoken for as buyers have agreements in place to take all of a farm’s production. We can still find organic coffee for you but quantities will vary and the price is higher. If you want to find an organic producer and set up your own supply chain we will be happy to help. Coffee of origin is a popular choice as the various parts of the coffee growing district will produce coffees with differing tastes, much like with wine. And, like with organic coffee, quantities will vary and the price is higher.

Getting the Coffee from Colombia to You

We are pleased to help coffee gourmets who want smaller quantities or green beans to roast or freshly roasted Colombian Arabica coffee. Our supplier will simply arrange to send to you via air freight. This service is typically for gourmet coffee lovers for whom price is little object. The coffee is still reasonably priced but the cost of shipping is typically as much or more than the cost of the coffee!

Coffee roasters from anywhere in the world can go through us to buy Arabica coffee directly from Colombia. Contact us and let us know what quantity of green coffee beans you want.

Our usual arrangement is FOB shipping. This term means “free on board” and means that we and our supplier are responsible for getting the shipment to the port for shipping. And then your shipper will take over to store the coffee, load it on the boat, handle export/import and deliver to you in the end.

FOB Delivery to Colombia Ports

Colombia has two main ports, Cartagena on the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) and Buenaventura on the Pacific Coast. To avoid the extra price of shipping through the Panama Canal it is best to pick Buenaventura for shipments to the west coast of the America, Australia, and Asia. Shipments to the US gulf coast and East coast as well as Europe should ship via Cartagena.

If you wish to have us handle shipping from Colombia our suppliers can do that but at an extra cost. Your best bet is to use your own shipper who speaks your own language as well.

If you have questions about how to buy Arabica coffee directly from Colombia please feel free to contact us at your convenience. We can typically provide you with a price quote in a day or two. Of course the price of coffee goes up and down, so all quotes are time limited.

A Land of Volcanoes That Produces Arabica Coffee

Colombia has an ideal climate for growing coffee. Coffee needs lots of water but the water should run off. Thus coffee in Colombia grows on hillsides and mountainsides and even on the slopes of volcanoes like Nevado Ruiz which looms over the city of Manizales.


Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia

Nevado Ruiz Volcano Overlooking Manizales

Buy Arabica Coffee Directly from Colombia PPT


Coffee and Health

Coffee is good for you. Every year more and more health benefits of drinking coffee are discovered. But, this view of coffee, based on scientific research, has only recently emerged. Many of us can recall being told by the doctor to cut back on our coffee consumption for various reasons. Humans have been drinking coffee for hundreds of years. And, there have always been concerns about whether coffee is good or bad for us to drink. In fact, as far back as the 1600’s when coffee became popular in Venice, Italy, the local clergy called it the “bitter invention of Satan.” Only the intervention of Pope Clement VIII saved coffee from being banned! (National Coffee Association) Here are some thoughts about coffee and health, why it is good for you, and also when you should cut back on your consumption of Java.

How Coffee Is Good for Your Health

Effects of Coffee on the Heart

Coffee and Health
Coffee Is Good for Your Health

If you drink a lot of coffee, your heart may speed up. And, some people complain of an irregular heart beat after drinking strong coffee. So is coffee bad for your heart? People who drink more than four cups of coffee a day are more likely to experience a fast or irregular heartbeat. (Mayo Clinic) So, if your heart skips or speeds up with lots of strong coffee, cut back a bit. But, the evidence shows that drinking coffee does not damage your heart but is good for it. Coffee drinkers do not have a higher incidence of dangerous heart rhythm problems than those who do not drink coffee. And, coffee drinkers have a lower risk of calcium deposits in and clogging of their coronary arteries!

Mental Health: Coffee Reduces the Incidence of Both Depression and Suicide

We know that coffee is a pick-me-up but there is more to the picture. We have known for several years that drinking coffee reduces the risk of depression. Researchers found that women who drank at least four cups of coffee a day had a lower incidence of depression than women who drank of a cup of coffee a day, or less. The risk reduction was twenty percent and the study included 50,000 women. It appears that the reduction of risk improves with more coffee each day. And, the benefit appears to come from caffeine as decaf drinkers showed no improvement.
(Archives of Internal Medicine, 2011, V. 171)

A slightly more recent study (2013) showed that drinking coffee reduces the risk of suicide. This is a big league scientific study from the Harvard School of Public Health. Over twenty years they followed more than 130,000 men and women, keeping track of coffee consumption and consumption of caffeine in general. The bottom line was that drinking two to four cups of coffee a day reduced the risk of suicide by half! There was a slightly better result with four cups a day than with two. The researchers believed that besides acting as a stimulant, the caffeine in coffee acted as an antidepressant as well.
(The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry)

Drinking Coffee Significantly Reduces the Risk of Type II Diabetes

It has been known for several years that coffee drinkers have a reduced risk of developing type II diabetes. The risk reduction is about seven percent for every cup of coffee consumed per day. As such, drinking six cups of coffee a day reduces your risk of getting type II diabetes by 42%. This happens with decaf coffee as well as caffeinated coffee. The effect is believed to come from the antioxidants in coffee. This is a huge deal!
(JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association)

coffee and health - diabetes
Coffee Reduces Your Risk of Type II Diabetes

In 1980 there were 108 million people worldwide with diabetes and ninety-five percent had type II diabetes. By 2014 there were 422 million people with the disease and the proportion of type II was the same. This disease is a primary cause of heart attacks, kidney failure, blindness, limb amputation, and stokes. And, drinking coffee reduces your risk of getting it by seven percent for every cup a day that you drink!
(World Health Organization)

Better Athletic Performance after Drinking Coffee

Usually we think of drinking coffee as a sedentary activity. But, it turns out that you can work out harder and even run longer and faster after drinking coffee. Coffee enhances athletic performance.
The bottom line is that coffee may help you pay attention when you are getting tired which should help in sports where that matters like reading the green correctly on the last hole of the Masters after four long days of playing professional golf. And, the adrenaline secreted in response to drinking coffee helps in endurance sports like running and cycling. This effect works just as well in heavy coffee drinkers as it does with those who normally drink no coffee. Coffee drinking does not seem to help strength activities like weight lifting.
(Journal of Applied Physiology)

Is Sex Better Too after Drinking Coffee?

If endurance is necessary for good sex, then drinking coffee ought to work as we noted in the part about coffee and better athletic performance. However, there is more to the story of coffee and better sex.
A study in 2009 showed that in a group of elderly men and women, coffee increased potency in men and libido in women.
(Dr. Bharwani/Archives of Internal Medicine)

Coffee Drinkers Reduce Their Risk of Getting Alzheimer ‘s Disease

The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease reported a study linking coffee drinking to a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease later in life. This 2009 report looked at 1,409 individuals in Finland who were followed for more than twenty years and reported on their coffee intake, among other things. Of the group of 1,409 people, 61 developed dementia of which 48 were cases of Alzheimer’s disease.

Coffee and Health - Alzheimers
Coffee Reduces the Risk of Alzheimers

When the researchers compared coffee drinkers to those who drank little or no coffee, there was a 65% reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in the coffee drinkers. The maximum benefit occurred in people who reported drinking three to five cups of coffee a day. Those who drank decaf coffee experienced the same level of benefit as drinkers of coffee with caffeine. The consensus of scientists is that it is the level of antioxidants in coffee that is responsible for this benefit.
(Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease)

If you are interested in information about antioxidants and how they may help stave off Alzheimer’s disease, and you don´t mind wading through a lot of science, take a look at an article published in the journal Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.

They go through a long list of foods and drinks with high levels of antioxidants, including coffee, and discuss the rationale for assuming that each one may reduce the incidence of Alzheimer’s. The one substance that has been shown to make a difference in outcome over a long period of time is coffee!
(Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity)

Coffee and a Reduced Risk of Dying

In our article, Drink Coffee, Live Longer, we report on a study published in the journal Circulation. The ultimate health benefit of drinking coffee is that you reduce your risk of dying from a large number of different diseases in the next few years. The title of the study is a real mouthful, “Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts.”

Here is a, hopefully, clear explanation of how coffee reduces your risk of dying in the next few years. The Harvard School of Public Health has enrolled Harvard graduates in the health professions in a long term study of health outcomes and lifestyle. This study has gone on for decades and includes more than 167,000 women and 40,000 men.

Over the years, every time they were contacted, people reported how much coffee they drank. They also reported on health issues. And, if they died, the cause of death was found in public health records.
This study looked at 4,690,072 person years (# of people x # of years). During that time 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. When the researchers looked at those who lived and those who died they also looked at reported coffee consumption. The bottom line was that folks who drank from one to five cups of coffee a day had a lower risk of dying during the course of the study than people who were not coffee drinkers.
Cups per day and Lower Risk of Death (over the course of the study)

  • 1 cup: 6%
  • 2 cups: 8%
  • 3 to 5 cups: 15%
  • More than 5 cups: 12%

What was happening was that the coffee drinkers were less likely to develop problems like type II diabetes, heart disease, strokes, or neurologic disease. And they were less likely to become depressed and commit suicide. Thus, the coffee drinkers were less likely to die during the course of the 20+ year study than those who did not drink coffee.

The benefit of drinking coffee was not affected by drinking decaf or regular, did not extend to deaths from cancer, and did not extend to people who smoked!

The Circulation article is very informative and full of lots of science. For a more “readable” version check out a New York Times article that reports on the study, Coffee Tied to Lower Risk of Dying.

Why Does Coffee Reduce the Incidence of Diseases and, Effectively, Prolong Life?

Why is it that drinking coffee has so many health benefits? Two things in coffee have been identified as being helpful, caffeine and antioxidants. We noted in regard to depression and suicide risks that caffeine is what makes the difference. For pretty much all of the rest of the health benefits of coffee it comes down to the antioxidants. The issue that researchers mention time and time again is called “chronic oxidative stress.”

Oxidation and Antioxidants

There are all sorts of densely scientific explanations of oxidation. The short version is that when oxygen combines with something, that something is oxidized. When oxygen combines with iron, the iron rusts. Within the human body oxygen is necessary for life and oxygen can also cause damage to the interior of cells. The sum total of this damage can be seen as oxidative stress.

The “too much” oxidation results in degenerative illnesses and premature aging. The body has a whole host of defense mechanisms to avoid excessive oxidation and oxidative stress, but the addition of antioxidants to the diet is known to help. The body’s antioxidants and those in the foods and drinks we consume help reduce the rate of damage from oxidation. Pretty much all of the health benefits of coffee appear to come from the antioxidants it provides the human body.

A short and useful explanation of oxidative stress explains that because we breathe oxygen we need enzymatic and molecular defenses to guard against oxygen free radicals that cause oxidation. When the body’s defenses are not sufficient, damage occurs to the RNA, DNA, proteins, and other constituents of the body’s cells. The cumulative damage results in damaged cell functioning, cell death, and cancer.
(University of Gothenburg)

Coffee as a Source of Antioxidants

So, is coffee the best source of antioxidants? Coffee is not the richest source of antioxidants but we drink so much of it that coffee is, for most people, their most reliable and important source of antioxidants.
The Nutrition Journal published a comprehensive study of foods and beverages and the antioxidants they contain. Coffee is mentioned in the summary where the authors note the high level of antioxidants and high level of consumption of coffee making it an important source, if not the most important source for most people in the world.
(Nutrition Journal)

What Is the Level of Antioxidants in Your Coffee?

There are antioxidants in green coffee and there are antioxidants created by roasting coffee. Green coffee antioxidants include trigonelline and ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and n-coumaric acids. When coffee is roasted melanoidins, phenylalanines and several heterocyclic compounds are created. All of these are powerful antioxidants. The “take home lesson” here is not the specific names of these compounds but rather the fact that green coffee has antioxidants and by roasting coffee we create more of them!

But, not all coffee varieties have the same level of antioxidants. Stale coffee that has been stored improperly or too long has lower levels of antioxidants. And, coffees from different parts of the world may have different levels of antioxidants as well. How coffee is processed makes a difference as does the method of roasting.

Interesting Findings

  • Green Robusta coffee beans have more antioxidant activity than green Arabica beans, but with light roasting the difference goes away. And, by the time a dark roast is achieved, Arabica exceeds Robusta in antioxidant activity.
  • Microwaving coffee to roast it does a better job of preserving antioxidants than traditional convection roasting.
  • Wet processing of coffee preserves more antioxidants than dry processing.
  • Total antioxidant content was measured for coffees provided by Freshly Roasted Coffee.  Coffees from Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, and Puerto Rico ranked the highest and are listed here in descending order.


When Coffee Can Cause Health Problems

Blood Pressure

Caffeine is a stimulant. It can raise your blood pressure. According to the Mayo Clinic, the caffeine in coffee can cause a short term elevation of your blood pressure. It is thought at part of this effect is because caffeine stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline which in turn raises pressure. Caffeine may also block the ability of arteries to widen which, in turn, can raise blood pressure.

However, many who drink coffee develop a tolerance to caffeine and their blood pressure no longer goes up with coffee and caffeine consumption. While some regular coffee drinkers experience an elevation of their blood pressure, many do not have any long term problems. According to the good doctors at Mayo, the best course of action is to find out if you do or do not have high blood pressure and, if you do, ask your doctor about how much coffee you can safely drink. If you want to play scientist, take your blood pressure before drinking coffee and again half an hour to two hours after finishing the cup. At Mayo, their opinion is that, in general, you should not have to worry about drinking a couple of 8-ounce cups of coffee a day (200 milligrams of caffeine). But, if you have significant health problems relating to blood pressure, talk to your doctor!
(Mayo Clinic)

Gastritis, Acid Reflux, and Ulcers

Heartburn (reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus) is a common complaint when one drinks too much coffee. Thus, doctors have typically advised against coffee drinking for patients with gastritis, acid reflux, and stomach of duodenal (upper small intestine) ulcers. However, recent scientific analysis shows that there is no proven association between gastritis or ulcers and drinking coffee that contains caffeine! Investigators speculate that other constituents of coffee such as its many antioxidants have protective effects. (Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)  (PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e6599)

The obvious answer in this case is that if you drink a lot of coffee and get heartburn, cut back until the heartburn goes away! And, for continuing problems in this area, see your doctor.

Coffee and Cancer

Drinking Coffee Helps Prevent Cancer

Recent scientific studies indicate that drinking coffee reduces the risk of developing cancers of the prostate, liver, breast, colon, rectum, endometrium (lining of the uterus), mouth and throat. In general, the benefit goes high with more cups per day consumed up to around 6 cups a day.
(American Cancer Society)

How about Acrylamide?

Acrylamide was in the news when a California court ruled that coffee needed to come with a label warning that it could cause cancer. The key issues here are California Proposition 65, roasting and frying starchy foods, and what constitutes a meaningful risk to the consumer.

California Proposition 65

This California law “requires the state to maintain and update a list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.”


According to the American Cancer Society, “Acrylamide is a chemical used mainly in certain industrial processes, such as in making paper, dyes, and plastics, and in treating drinking water and wastewater.
Acrylamide can also form in some starchy foods during high-temperature cooking, such as frying, roasting, and baking. Acrylamide forms from sugars and an amino acid that are naturally in food.”

According to these folks the highest levels of acrylamide are in French fries and cigarette smoke.

The primary evidence for acrylamide as a cause of cancer is from lab rats that were given acrylamide in their drinking water at level 1,000 to 10,000 higher than humans might be expected to be exposed to, ever.
(American Cancer Society)

Court of Appeals Reverses Acrylamide Decision Regarding Cereals

Coffee still needs to come with a warning label in California but according to the California court of appeals decision, breakfast cereals do not despite the fact that a lower court ruled that they do. The bottom line is that Federal policy is to promote cereals with fiber as being healthy and a cancer warning would negate that effort.
(Hogan Lovells Law Firm)

The problem for you as a coffee drinker is this. Do you believe in all of the evidence that coffee is good for you or do you believe that poisoning lab rats with excessive levels of a chemical really applies to you?
An interesting analogy is this. Put a lab rat, or you, in a room with 7 feet (84 inches) of water and nothing to hold on to. You have to tread water to stay alive and will eventually drown and die. That is a 100% mortality rate. If you reduce the water in the room to 1% of that level (0.84 inches) your risk of dying is now virtually zero and certainly not 1%!

It is certainly a worthwhile goal to protect the public against substances that cause cancer. But, in the case of coffee, the scientists find “no convincing evidence” that drinking coffee causes any kind of cancer.
(American Cancer Society)

At BuyOrganicCoffee.org we try to keep up with all of the news that relates to coffee and health. And, when we find something important or just interesting we will post the information on our site. If you have questions about the health aspects of coffee, please feel free to leave a comment and we will get back to you. And, if your question is of general interest, we may write an article about it.

Make Good Coffee at Home

You love the coffee at your local coffee house but would like to make good coffee at home as well. Start by considering why coffee house coffee is good. They start with high quality green Arabica coffee beans. They roast enough for the day. They grind the coffee just before brewing. And, they keep their coffee brewing apparatus clean.

Coffee House Coffee

Coffee house coffee is made from espresso. Ideally they use USDA organic certified coffee but that is not guaranteed. What makes their coffee good is that they follow the steps we noted above by using Arabica coffee beans from places like the coffee growing axis of Colombia. Because they buy green coffee beans that retain their freshness for up to two years, you are getting fresh coffee with lots of healthy antioxidants and excellent flavor. When they roast their beans that day there is no time for the roasted whole coffee beans to lose any of their freshness and, likewise, when they only grind enough for the batch they are brewing, there is no time for the coffee to get flat and tasteless.

Brewing Coffee

There are many ways of making coffee as noted in our coffee making article. One of the most common and best ways to make good coffee at home is to use a French Press.

Because this device uses a metal screen instead of a paper or cloth filter, more oils and minute solids remain in the coffee. The result is a deeper and richer taste that many coffee lovers prefer.

Buy Colombian organic coffee, whole beans, and roast just for the day if you have green coffee beans. If you have roasted whole bean coffee, grind just enough for what you want to make. Make the coffee and serve as soon as you get done pushing down the plunger.

If you like espresso, make sure to routinely clean the apparatus. A common way to make good coffee at home down in Colombia where great coffee comes from is to make pour over coffee. Put your ground in a cloth bag, boil the water, and pour it over the coffee. As with French press and espresso, only grind enough coffee to make what you are drinking and serving your guests.

Other ways of making coffee like Turkish coffee involve boiling the grounds in the water and letting them settle. If you want to mimic the coffee that great grandma made on the farm, make egg coffee buy breaking a couple of eggs into the pot before boiling and make enough to serve a large family gathering.

Practice Makes Perfect When You Want to Make Good Coffee at Home

The basics of good coffee beans, fresh coffee beans, and clean implements should never change but otherwise feel free to experiment with how strong you make your coffee, if you use a French press, try pour over, or take a turn a making espresso. With time you will find the exact process that makes the best coffee for you. Then, enjoy your coffee!

What Kind of Coffee is Good for You?

We have known that coffee is good for you for years. But even back years ago medical research was beginning to show that coffee benefits depend on several factors such as your age, how much coffee you drink, and what kind of coffee you prefer. The New York Times published a useful article recently about how and why coffee is good for you.

In moderation, coffee seems to be good for most people — that’s 3 to 5 cups daily, or up to 400 milligrams of caffeine.

“The evidence is pretty consistent that coffee is associated with a lower risk of mortality,” said Erikka Loftfield, a research fellow at the National Cancer Institute who has studied the beverage.
For years, coffee was believed to be a possible carcinogen, but the 2015 Dietary Guidelines helped to change perception. For the first time, moderate coffee drinking was included as part of a healthy diet. When researchers controlled for lifestyle factors, like how many heavy coffee drinkers also smoked, the data tipped in coffee’s favor.

We noted years ago that more organic coffee can lead to less diabetes and noted early studies showing the benefit off coffee for prevention and treatment of Type II diabetes. Over the years evidence has grown that drinking up to five cups of coffee a day helps protect against not only diabetes but Parkinson’s disease, liver cancer and cirrhosis. There is good evidence that coffee enhances certain types of athletic performance as well as sex! The most recent data on Type II diabetes is that five cups of coffee a day cuts the risk of this form of diabetes by 30%!

Arabica or Robusta?

If you want lots of caffeine in your coffee and are not picky about taste, you probably like coffee from strong Robusta coffee beans. The biggest producers of Robusta coffee are Brazil and Vietnam. Although much Robusta production goes for extraction of caffeine for soft drinks, this bean also lends a kick to Italian espressos and other strong coffees. If you prefer a better tasting coffee, you will want Arabica coffee beans and the best of the best are Colombian organic Arabica coffee beans. Colombia and Brazil are the biggest producers of high quality Arabica coffee and the Colombian coffee growing axis is where you can reliably get the largest quantities of the highest quality Arabica coffee, both regular and organic.

In regard to what kind of coffee is good for you, some of the benefits of coffee seem to come from the coffee but not a lot of them as folks who drink caffeinated soft drinks do not get the health benefits that coffee drinkers do. The key to coffee health benefits appear to the antioxidants in coffee and the best source of these antioxidants is an Arabica coffee from Colombia.

Older Folks Benefit More from Drinking Coffee

Age-related inflammation is involved in many diseases in later life. A study at Stanford University looked at coffee drinkers over fifty versus the twenty to thirty-year-old group. The benefits of fewer inflammation-related diseases and a longer life were very clear in the over-50 age group!

The bottom line to all this is that drinking coffee up to five cups a day is good for you. Drinking Arabica coffee is better and drinking coffee when you are over 50 years of age is a great idea. And, the best high-quality Arabica coffee comes from places like Manizales, Colombia!

Colombian Coffee History

With a yearly production that routinely tops 10 million bags of high-quality Arabica coffee, Colombia is the third largest coffee producer in the world. However, Colombia is the largest producer and exporter of Arabica coffee. Although the history of coffee goes back a millennium to the mountains of Ethiopia, it took a couple of centuries to spread into the Middle East and then across the world. That is when Colombian coffee history began in the 18th century.

Coffee Arrives in Arabia and Then Europe

It as in the 1400s when coffee was being grown, consumed, and traded on the Arabian Peninsula and the 1500s when it spread to the center of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul in what is now Turkey. It took another century before coffee got to Europe by way of Venice where the church disliked it until Pope Clement VIII tasted it and approved of its consumption by everyone.

Coffee Arrives in the New World

Although Dutch traders brought coffee to New Amsterdam (New York) in the 1600s, this was too far north to grow coffee and supplies initially came from Dutch plantations in the East Indies from islands such as Java. Coffee for planting arrived in the New World by a curious route.

The Mayor of Amsterdam gave Louis XIV of France a gift of a coffee plant in 1714. The king had it planted in Paris in the Royal Botanical Gardens. It was a naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu, who obtained a seedling from this plant and in 1723 carried it on a perilous voyage to the island of Martinique in the windward group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

The plant thrived in its new home is credited with producing eighteen million offspring over the next 50 years. These coffee plants were the first to spread throughout the Caribbean as well as Central and South America.

Coffee Is First Grown in Colombia

The first written record of coffee in Colombia comes from the writings of a Jesuit priest, José Gumilla, in his book The Orinoco Illustrated. Gumilla lived and traveled for 35 years in the region that now includes Colombia and Venezuela. His book written in the 1730s, describes customs, foods, and medicines in the area as well as his work at the Orinoco Mission where he was the Provincial Superior of New Granada. Gumilla noted that coffee was grown and consumed at the mission of Saint Teresa of Tabajé near the junction of the Meta and Orinoco Rivers. Fifty years later in 1787 the region’s Archbishop and Viceroy Caballero y Gorgora noted that coffee was being grown near Giron and Muzo which are today Santander and Boyaca to the North or present day Bogota.

Increased Coffee Production in the Northeast of Colombia

Commercial production of coffee was first recorded in 1808 when 100 bags of green coffee (60 kg each) were exported from Cucuta. Local legend attributes the increase in coffee production to a priest, Francisco Romero, who is said to have required his parishioners in the village of Salazar de Las Palmas to plant coffee as penance for their sins! No matter what the reason was, coffee production increased and spread from the departments of North Santander and Santander to Cundinamarca, Antioquia and the historic center of later coffee production in Viejo Caldas around Manizales.

The 14 Families Arrive at and Found Manizales

The department of Caldas was virtually empty of human in the early 19th century due to the massive deaths of the indigenous population due diseases caught during the European conquest. Despite there being colonial cities in Colombia like Cartagena and Santa Marta that date to the early years of the 1500s, the city of Manizales was only founded in 1849 after the “expedition of the 20” that came from the west in Antioquia around the present day towns of Niera and Salamina. To this day the fourteen founding families are part of the local culture including a grocery store chain named “La 14” and a large and modern mall named “Los Fundadores.”

Coffee in Colombia
Coffee in Colombia

Despite coming late to the business of growing coffee, the region around Manizales became the center of Colombian coffee production for the next century until it spread back across the rest of the “triangulo de café” demarcated by Manizales to the east, Medellin to the northwest and Cali to the southwest. Later spread resulted in major coffee production in the Department of Huila to the South of Manizales, Caldas.

What Is Pink Bourbon Coffee - Nevado del Huila
Nevado del Huila – Tallest Volcano in Colombia

Exportation of Coffee from Colombia

It was not until the later part of the 1800s that Colombia began to export larger quantities of coffee to the USA and Europe. Initially, most coffee production for export came from large landowners. However, periodic collapses of the coffee market made pure coffee production unsustainable for many. Thus, small coffee growers became the backbone of Colombian coffee growing.

Coffee Leaf Rust and the Pivot of Coffee Production to the Western Hemisphere

Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon, was the largest coffee producer in the world until the appearance of coffee leaf rust, the fungus that destroys coffee crops. As coffee production suffered in Ceylon (which switched to growing tea) and elsewhere in Asia, the world had to look elsewhere for coffee. Thus Colombian coffee growers found more customers in markets across the world. The fungus made it to Africa by the beginning of the 20th century and to Brazil by 1970. Although the disease eventually got to Colombia, the Colombian Coffee Growers’ research arm, Cenicafé, began in the 1980s producing a Colombian leaf rust resistant coffee. The initial Colombian leaf rust resistant coffee came in two varieties, Colombian and Castillo. The first is a cross between an old Colombian variety, Caturra, and a rust-resistant strain from Southeast Asia, the Timor hybrid. Castillo is an offshoot of further cross breeding of the first Colombian leaf rust resistant coffee strain. Replanting with Colombian leaf rust resistant coffee in Colombia reduced the incidence of leaf rust from 40% to 5% a decade ago.

Colombian Coffee during the Covid-19 Crisis

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected many businesses including the Colombian coffee harvest! The problem is getting enough workers into the fields to pick the coffee as the beans ripen. Every year in Colombia about 150,000 workers enter the coffee fields (and mountain slopes) to harvest coffee. This work is “social distancing” at its core because workers scatter throughout the fields and do not work side by side. The problem is one of getting from field to field as Colombia has restricted travel across the country with its nationwide quarantine.

Covid-19 Situation in Colombia

Colombia had the advantage of not getting a lot of travel from Europe or, especially, China as the pandemic began although there were vacationers who picked up the disease in Italy and needed treatment upon their return. Having watched how the disease unfolded in China and then in Italy and Spain, Colombia shut down early and hard with the military patrolling trouble spots to ensure compliance.

Hardest Hit Areas

The hardest hit area is the capital city of Bogota with 8,000,000 people and 2,408 of the 5,549 known cases in the country. The Cali and Medellin areas are next with 881 and 463 cases respectively at the end of April, 2020. (Colombia Ministry of Health Update, April 29, 2020)

Compared to the USA which a 0.3% case rate (one million reported cases per 328 million people, Colombia has a 0.015% case rate (5,549 cases per 36 million people).

Colombia Coffee Harvest, Processing, and Exports

The problem with the coffee harvest in Colombia is that the quarantine has shut down travel across the country. Every year about 150,000 are needed to pick coffee. Many of these workers move from area to area as needed. This year, growers are having to rely on just locals which may be difficult in scarcely populated mountainous areas where coffee is grown.

Colombian coffee roasters have not been spared the lockdown need to contain the virus and some are also concerned about lower global demand so they are not as willing to take on higher inventories.
Then the problem goes to the two main ports of Cartagena and Buen Aventura which are also large shut down due to the virus.

Things Are Getting Better in Colombia

The good news is that the “curve” has flattened in Colombia due to their early efforts at containment and the numbers, especially in areas like Manizales (one million people) in the heart of the Eje Cafetero, have not increased at all for a week. Thus, people are getting back to work slowly but surely and are we are likely to see fewer restrictions on travel so that workers will be able to get to the fields.

The Colombian Coffee Growers Federation is actively involved in protecting the health and lives of all coffee workers as noted on their website.

The FNC has adopted the necessary measures to preserve everybody’s health and well-being at all levels, including its headquarters in Bogotá, departmental and municipal coffee grower committees, Almacafé, Cenicafé, the freeze-dried coffee factory Buencafé Liofilizado de Colombia, Procafecol (Juan Valdez stores), the Coffee Park, the Manuel Mejía Foundation, and other branches.

Supported by our own technology platforms, we seek to ensure that the service to coffee growers, customers, partners, allies and suppliers is not interrupted. Our work team will remain available, through their email addresses, cell phones and virtual meetings, to provide the best possible service in these circumstances.

Coffee Making

Coffee lovers know that there is more to a good cup of coffee than just throwing coffee grounds in the percolator, adding water, and plugging it in. Coffee making is an art and a science. And, like all art and science, the details are what make the difference. With the rise of the coffee house in modern society, many people have gotten used to good coffee. But, how can you make a good cup or two at home? First, we offer a “quick and easy” way to make a good cup of coffee. Then, we delve into the details. Feel free to skip around and read what you want.

Quick and Easy: Coffee Making with Organic Beans and a French Press

When you buy certified organic coffee, you are almost always getting Arabica coffee beans, the highest quality and best tasting ones. Organic coffee is free of many chemicals that may otherwise show up in regular coffee and therefore in your morning cup of java. Unless you already have a coffee grinder, buy ground coffee to start with. If you have a coffee grinder, grind just enough beans for a serving or two. And, use a coarse grind with a French press.

Why French press coffee, you ask. A French press is (typically) a glass coffee pot. A metal rod (passing through a hole in the lid of the pot) is connected to a metal filter. Because this device uses a metal screen instead of a paper or cloth filter, more oils and minute solids remain in the coffee. The result is a deeper and richer taste that many coffee lovers prefer.

  • Put the coffee grounds in the pot, one to two tablespoonsful for each six ounces of water
  • Boil water and let it sit for a minute before adding to the pot
  • Let the coffee and water sit for two to four minutes
  • Push the plunger down and the grounds are pushed to the bottom of the pot
  • Serve the coffee

Use this method of coffee making and you will reliably get a good cup of coffee. Then, if you want to improve your knowledge, your skills, and the coffee that you brew, read on.

Coffee making with a French press coffee maker results in more oils and solids for a richer tasting coffee.

French Press Coffee Maker

Now, here is a detailed breakdown of what you need to know and what you need to do to steadily improve your coffee making results.

Coffee Making

Successful coffee making requires that you use good coffee, clean equipment, clean water, and the correct process. Here is how we broke down the details. Feel free to read the parts that interest you.

  • Equipment
  • Coffee Beans
    • Origin
    • Variety
    • Type of Roast
    • Roast Your Own
    • Grind texture
    • Grind Your Own
    • How Old Are the Beans: Fresh Coffee
  • Water
  • The Brewing Process
    • Ratio of Coffee to Water
    • Temperature of the Water
    • Time to brew
    • Time to extract
  • Brewed Coffee is Best When Fresh
  • Alternative methods

Clean the Coffee Making Equipment

No matter what you use to make coffee, keeping it clean is important. If you grind your own coffee beans, make sure to wipe out the grinder with a dry cloth or paper towel. You should rinse the coffee maker with hot, clear water and then wipe dry with an absorbent towel. Make sure that no coffee grounds or coffee oil remain as they will give the next batch a bitter or rancid taste. And, if you have a single-serve coffee maker like a fourth of us do, clean that too after each use.

(National Coffee Association)

Basic to Complex Equipment to Make Coffee

Percolator Coffee: What You Grew Up With

Many of us grew up in a home with a coffee percolator. Add coffee grounds, add water, plug it in and wait. There are electric percolators that can make 40 cups of coffee and there are stovetop models. In both cases, boiling hot water rises up a metal stem and splashes onto the coffee grounds in a metal basket. The water runs out though tiny holes in the bottom of the basket only to return again and again. This is a “perk and forget” device that can make a lot of coffee for a lot of people.

One downside to using a percolator is that the boiling hot water extracts more coffee chemicals than you want and the coffee is typically bitter. Another is that you really need to clean this device well after each use. And, last but not least in importance, be careful not to open the top when perking for fear of being scaled by the boiling hot water.

Coffee making with this vintage coffee percolator was easy. The coffee was bitter and not always that good.

Vintage Coffee Percolator

For best results, use freshly ground coffee, between one heaping tablespoonsful per every cup of water. The coffee will be best when just brewed. Unfortunately, the last folks to drink percolator coffee from a 40 cup urn are getting caffeine and a bad cup of coffee.

(Talk about Coffee)

Pour Over Coffee

In places where they grow coffee, like the coffee triangle in Colombia, pour over coffee is what they make at home. This consists of a pan or pot to boil the water, a cloth or wire mesh filter filled with ground coffee, and a pot to receive the coffee. Boil the water, let it sit a minute or two, and pour over the coffee grounds. Then, serve the coffee. You should still clean the coffee pot and the filter, but otherwise this simple setup makes great coffee without a lot of fuss.

Pour over coffee is a way of coffee making without a lot of fuss or cleanup.

Pour Over Coffee

This is how folks make coffee in places like the Coffee Triangle in Colombia or in Panama, where this photo was taken.

Espresso Machines

And if you want to make espresso, you will want an espresso machine. This method forces water near the boiling point through a small quantity of finely ground coffee and a filter. The result is thick and concentrated. All coffee house coffee starts with espresso.

Making espresso is coffee making like a coffee shop coffee, first step.

Making Espresso

If you grind your own beans, grind them extra fine to about the size of grains of table salt for espresso.  The grounds go into a cup-with handle device called the portafilter. Put in enough to be rounded over the top of the device. Then tamp down the coffee so that it is packed tight and below the rim of the portafilter. Your espresso machine should come with a tamper.

The portafilter fits onto the bottom of the machine. Fill the water container as directed and make your espresso. Fancier machines have lots and bells and whistles and simple machines simply make the espresso. Most machines have a metal tube that provides steam for frothing milk to go with your espresso.

Ibriks and Large Pots on the Farm

And, you will want a pot called an Ibrik for making Turkish coffee, or a really big coffee pot for making egg coffee like great-grandma did back on the farm.

Coffee Beans

No matter how fancy your coffee making gear is, or how simple, a good cup of coffee starts with good coffee beans.


The two main types of coffee beans are Arabica and Robusta. Arabica is the superior coffee for taste and aroma and is what you want to buy for making a really fine cup of coffee. Robusta has more caffeine and if you want more of a jolt in the morning that may be your choice. Gesha coffee is an heirloom varietal. The seed stock has not been cross bred or altered from the original near Gesha, Ethiopia. Gesha has much more of a floral note than Arabica. It can also sell for $100 for a pound of beans or $11 for a cup in a coffee house. Until you get the hang of coffee making, we suggest that you forget about the Gesha or other gourmet coffee brands. Return to these when your coffee making abilities consistently result in a great cup of Arabica!

When you are buying coffee beans, consider the country and region of origin, the variety, the type of roast (assuming that you are not roasting your own), and whether the grind is coarse or fine.

Where Did Your Coffee Come From?

Coffee from the Americas

  • Kona coffee, the only produced in the USA (Hawaii) is aromatic with a medium body.
  • Mexican coffees are good for dark roasts and have impressive aroma and depth of flavor.
  • Coffee from Puerto Rico is known for its fruity aroma and balanced acidity.
  • Guatemala produces medium-bodied coffees that are spicy or chocolatey.
  • Costa Rican coffee is Arabica, medium bodied, and sharply acidic.
  • Colombia produces only high quality Arabica coffee. The highest quality bean, Supremo, has an aromatic sweetness and Excelso, the next best, is slightly more acidic and softer.
  • Brazil produces lots and lots of coffee. The best Brazilian coffee is sweet, low-acid, and medium-bodied.

Coffee from Africa

  • Ethiopia is the birthplace of the coffee plant. Their best coffee is full flavored and full bodied.
  • Kenya is just South of Ethiopia. Its best coffees are full bodied, fruity and acidic, and richly fragrant.
  • The Ivory Coast produces Robusta coffee, strong and slightly aromatic.

Middle East

Yemen was the first stopping point for coffee coming out of Africa. Its coffee is distinctive, deep and rich.


  • Vietnam just recently edged out Brazil as the leading coffee exporter. Most of their production is Robusta but with good balance and light acidity.
  • Indonesia: If you really want a cup of Java, buy Indonesian coffee from the island of Java! These coffees have mild acidity, rich flavor, and full body.

(National Coffee Association)

How Was the Coffee Roasted?

Coffee undergoes chemical transformations when it is roasted. Light, medium, and dark roasts are carried out at successively higher temperatures.

A light roast is used for mild coffee varieties preserves flavor and aroma that would otherwise be overcome by the effects of roasting.

  • Light City
  • Half City
  • Cinnamon

A medium roast results in a stronger flavor and like with the light roast, the coffee oils do not break the surface of the bean.

  • City
  • American
  • Breakfast

Medium dark roasts leave some oil on the surface of the bean and results in a slightly bitter aftertaste.

Full City

Dark roasts result in a black, shiny bean with an oily surface. A dark roast results in a bitterer but less acidic coffee. With a dark roast the results of roasting largely overcome the original coffee aroma and flavor.

  • High
  • Continental
  • New Orleans
  • European
  • Espresso
  • Viennese
  • Italian
  • French

(National Coffee Association)

A medium roast or medium dark roast is a good choice for anyone new to coffee making at home.

How Coarsely or Finely Is the Coffee Ground?

When you expose coffee to water, the chemicals in the coffee get dissolved and that results in the coffee that you drink. The longer the coffee grounds sit in hot water, the more caffeine and flavor enters the water. The finer the grind, the more surface area is exposed and the more caffeine and flavor come out.

For coffee making with a French press you want coarsely ground coffee because the grounds remain with the coffee. If you are making pour over coffee or using a percolator or drip coffee maker, you will want a finer grind because the hot water just passes through the grounds. If you are making espresso, you want the coffee very finely ground. And, if you are getting out the Ibrik for Turkish coffee, the grounds should be the consistency of powdered sugar!

Fresh Is Best with Coffee

Unlike a fine wine, coffee generally does not get better with age. If the bag of gourmet coffee you bought was on the shelf for a few years, it will have lost significant flavor, aroma, and even health benefits. And the green beans need to be fresh as well. Several years ago, Brazilian coffee growers put significant quantities of green coffee beans in storage because prices were so low. When prices went up, they were only able to sell those green beans for institutional use as the 8-year-old green beans had dried out and lost flavor.

Ordering green coffee directly from the source is an option. Store them in a cool and dry location. Only take out enough to roast for the day. Green coffee beans properly stored can be good for a couple of years!

But, let’s say that you just bought a bag of roasted whole bean organic coffee. How do you keep it fresh?

The flavor and aroma of coffee comes from chemicals called antioxidants. These chemicals combine with oxygen when exposed to the air. The process of “oxidation” speeds up when beans are stored in a warm location, exposed to sunlight, or allowed to become moist. And, ground coffee has more surface exposed to the air so ground coffee loses its freshness a lot faster than whole beans.

Although you want your coffee beans close for coffee making, the shelf next to the stove is a bad place because it is too hot! Pick a cool and dry pantry shelf. Only take out enough beans to grind for the current batch of coffee. When you buy whole bean roasted coffee, buy just enough for a couple of weeks. If you prefer ground coffee, buy weekly.

Some folks like to refrigerate their coffee. The coolness is a good idea. Unfortunately, every time you take the bag out of the fridge, moisture from the warm kitchen air will condense on the cold beans. If you buy a lot of coffee and want to preserve it in the refrigerator, store in several smaller bags.

Air tight containers are a better choice than the bag the coffee comes in because you can properly reseal these containers.

(National Coffee Association)

Coffee Is Mostly Water

You can use tap water to make coffee, providing that the water does not have an odor or too much chlorine. If that is the case, use bottled or filtered water. The water should be cold. And, do not use softened water or distilled water. Start by using one or two tablespoonsful of coffee for each six ounces of water. Then add or subtract coffee according to your taste.

Best Temperature for Making Coffee

The best coffee brewing temperature is between 195 degrees and 205 degrees Fahrenheit. When the temperature is lower, the water does not extract the chemicals that give coffee its aroma and flavor. When the water is closer to boiling at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, extraction is too efficient and your coffee will have excessive bitterness.

Coffee makers typically take care of the temperature for you. When making pour over coffee, bring the water to a boil. Turn off the burner and let the water sit for two or three minutes and then pour over the coffee grounds. Likewise with a French press, let the boiled water cool for a couple of minutes before pouring into the French press pot.

Cold brewed coffee is completely different. Add coffee ground to a pitcher of water, put in the refrigerator, and forget for half a day.

Best Temperature for Drinking Coffee

Most coffee drinkers like their coffee at about 140 degrees Fahrenheit. In fact, drinking hotter coffee in the 185 degree range can cause scalding and burns mouth and throat. (Journal of Burns) And, very hot coffee could increase the risk of cancer of the esophagus. (Chicago Tribune / Lancet) And, we all remember the McDonald’s lawsuit when the lady sued for burns of the skin from spilled near-boiling coffee.

How Long to Brew when Making Coffee

The longer your coffee is in contact with hot water, the more chemicals are extracted. A drip coffee maker has coffee in contact with hot water for about 5 minutes. With pour over coffee, the contact time is less than a minute. Espresso has a contact time of about 20 to 30 seconds. And, if you use a French press, serve the coffee two to four minutes after pouring water into the pot.

How Soon Should You Drink Your Coffee?

The same “oxidation” issues apply to coffee after it is brewed as applied when it was stored. Coffee has the best aroma and flavor right after it is brewed. By the time your coffee has cooled down, some flavor has gone as well. After a few hours your coffee still has the same caffeine content, but the antioxidants have combined with the air and the flavor is pretty much gone.

Coffee Making Across the World

Turkish Coffee

Turkey was once the center of the Ottoman Empire which extended to Yemen, where coffee was first cultivated. When coffee arrived in Istanbul, it was first prepared in the Sultan’s palace. The Turkish coffee method is still used in the countries that were once part of the Ottoman Empire.

Coffee making in the old Ottoman Empire involved an Ibrik, coffee, and lots of sugar!

Ottoman Empire where Turkish Coffee Began

Ottoman Empire around 1300 AD and an Ibrik for Making Turkish Coffee

Here is the short and “sweet” approach to making Turkish coffee.

  • When making coffee Turkish style grind the coffee beans even finer than you would for making espresso.
  • Make Turkish coffee in a small pot with a cup of water
  • A small sauce pan will do although Turks use an Ibrik (see image)
  • Add sugar
    • Plain: no sugar
    • Little sugar: add half a level teaspoon to the coffee
    • Medium: add a level teaspoon to the coffee
    • A lot of sugar: add two level teaspoons to the coffee
  • Bring the water with sugar to a boil and remove from heat
  • Add coffee and stir until coffee sinks
    • Some add a pod of cardamom as well (optional)
  • Heat again slowly until coffee boils and foam appears on the top
    • So not stir as this disturbs the foam
    • Do not boil too long as prolonged boiling gives the coffee a burnt taste
    • Remove from heat briefly and then heat again
    • Repeat one more time
  • Pour coffee directly from the Ibrik or your sauce pan into demitasse cups similar to what you would use for espresso
  • Ideal Turkish coffee has a lot of thick foam (think of Cuban coffee) and the person who gets the cup with the most foam has the best coffee.

Ibrik for coffee making the Turkish way

Ibrik for Turkish Coffee

Café de Olla

When coffee moved across the world to the Americas, so did the ways of making coffee. A now-traditional way of coffee making evolved in Mexico. Coffee was made in a clay pot and was thus called pot coffee (Café de Olla-Café de O Ya as the Spanish letter “ll” is pronounced like the English “y” or also the English “j”) . Unrefined cane sugar, ground cinnamon, and ground coffee are all heated together. The sugar is called piloncillo in Mexico but further into Central and South America it is called panela.

How to Make Café de Olla

To do this correctly you should use a ceramic pot, but for beginners, you will be forgiven for using a sauce pan.


  • 4 cups of water
  • 3 ounces of panela or piloncillo (Gringos may use brown sugar)
  • half a stick of cinnamon, preferably Mexican
  • 4 tablespoonsful of ground coffee

Make your café de olla on the stove top. Grind your coffee first, finely ground is best.

Then add the cinnamon and panela to the water and heat to a simmer to dissolve the sugar. Then turn the heat to high and boil the water. When the water boils, add the coffee and turn off the heat.

Stir the pot briefly and cover the sauce pan for five minutes. Pour the coffee through a filter or strainer into the cups you will use to serve the café de olla.

Café de Olla is an indigenous Mexican way of making coffee in a ceramic pot

Café de Olla

You Are the Best Judge

For all coffee making, remember that you are the best judge of what variety of coffee, what roast, what grind, and what method that you like. The point of making your own coffee is to get the coffee you want with the amount of effort you choose to expend. Experience is the best teacher with any coffee making, so start brewing your coffee and enjoy!